Latest mac os

Latest mac os DEFAULT

Upgrade to macOS Big Sur

macOS Big Sur elevates the most advanced desktop operating system in the world to a new level of power and beauty. Experience Mac to the fullest with a refined new design. Enjoy the biggest Safari update ever. Discover new features for Maps and Messages. Get even more transparency around your privacy.

Chances are, your Mac can run macOS Big Sur

The following models are supported:

  • MacBook (2015 or later)
  • MacBook Air (2013 or later)
  • MacBook Pro (Late 2013 or later)
  • Mac mini (2014 or later)
  • iMac (2014 or later)
  • iMac Pro (2017 or later)
  • Mac Pro (2013 or later)

To see which model you have, click the Apple icon in your menu bar and choose About This Mac.

Learn more about which models are compatible

Make sure you’re ready to upgrade.

Before you upgrade, we recommend that you back up your Mac. If your Mac is running OS X Mavericks 10.9 or later, you can upgrade directly to macOS Big Sur. You’ll need the following:

  • OS X 10.9 or later
  • 4GB of memory
  • 35.5GB available storage on macOS Sierra or later*
  • Some features require an Apple ID; terms apply.
  • Some features require a compatible internet service provider; fees may apply.

Learn how to back up your Mac

Upgrading is free and easy

Upgrading from macOS Catalina 10.15 or Mojave 10.14?

Go to Software Update in System Preferences to find macOS Big Sur. Click Upgrade Now and follow the onscreen instructions.

Upgrading from an older version of macOS?

If you’re running any release from macOS 10.13 to 10.9, you can upgrade to macOS Big Sur from the App Store. If you’re running Mountain Lion 10.8, you will need to upgrade to El Capitan 10.11 first.

If you don’t have broadband access, you can upgrade your Mac at any Apple Store.

Learn more about how to upgrade

General Requirements

  • OS X 10.9 or later
  • 4GB of memory
  • 35.5GB available storage on macOS Sierra or later*
  • Some features require an Apple ID; terms apply.
  • Some features require a compatible internet service provider; fees may apply.

Mac Hardware Requirements

For details about your Mac model, click the Apple icon at the top left of your screen and choose About This Mac. These Mac models are compatible with macOS Big Sur:

  • MacBook (2015 or later)
  • MacBook Air (2013 or later)
  • MacBook Pro (Late 2013 or later)
  • Mac mini (2014 or later)
  • iMac (2014 or later)
  • iMac Pro (2017 or later)
  • Mac Pro (2013 or later)

Feature Requirements

Siri

Requires a broadband internet connection and microphone (built-in or external).

Hey Siri

Supported by the following Mac models:

  • MacBook Pro (2018 or later)
  • MacBook Air (2018 or later)
  • iMac Pro (2017 or later)

Dictation, Voice Control, and Voice Memos

Requires a microphone (built-in or external).

Spotlight Suggestions

Requires a broadband internet connection.

Gestures

Requires a Multi-Touch trackpad, Force Touch trackpad, Magic Trackpad, or Magic Mouse.

Force Touch gestures require a Force Touch trackpad.

VoiceOver gestures require a Multi-Touch trackpad, Force Touch trackpad, or Magic Trackpad.

Photo Booth

Requires a FaceTime or iSight camera (built-in or external) or USB video class (UVC) camera.

FaceTime

Audio calls require a microphone (built-in or external) and broadband internet connection.

Video calls require a built-in FaceTime camera, an iSight camera (built-in or external), or a USB video class (UVC) camera; and broadband internet connection.

Apple TV

High dynamic range (HDR) video playback is supported by the following Mac models:

  • MacBook Pro (2018 or later)
  • iMac Pro (2017 or later)
  • Mac Pro (2019) with Pro Display XDR

Dolby Atmos soundtrack playback is supported by the following Mac models:

  • MacBook Air (2018 or later)
  • MacBook Pro (2018 or later)

Sidecar

Supported by the following Mac models:

  • MacBook (2016 or later)
  • MacBook Air (2018 or later)
  • MacBook Pro (2016 or later)
  • Mac mini (2018 or later)
  • iMac (late 2015 or later)
  • iMac Pro (2017 or later)
  • Mac Pro (2019)

Supported by all iPad models with Apple Pencil support:

  • 12.9-inch iPad Pro
  • 11-inch iPad Pro
  • 10.5-inch iPad Pro
  • 9.7-inch iPad Pro
  • iPad (6th generation or later)
  • iPad mini (5th generation)
  • iPad Air (3rd and 4th generation)

Continuity Camera

Requires an iPhone or iPad that supports iOS 12 or later.

Continuity Sketch and Continuity Markup

Requires an iPhone with iOS 13 or later or an iPad with iPadOS 13 or later.

Handoff

Requires an iPhone or iPad with a Lightning connector or with USB-C and iOS 8 or later.

Instant Hotspot

Requires an iPhone or iPad with cellular connectivity, a Lightning connector or USB-C, and iOS 8.1 or later. Requires Personal Hotspot service through your carrier.

Universal Clipboard

Requires an iPhone or iPad with a Lightning connector or with USB-C and iOS 10 or later.

Auto Unlock

Requires an Apple Watch with watchOS 3 or later or an iPhone 5 or later.

Approve with Apple Watch

Requires an Apple Watch with watchOS 6 or later or an iPhone 6s or later with iOS 13 or later.

Apple Pay on the Web

Requires a MacBook Pro or MacBook Air with Touch ID, an iPhone 6 or later with iOS 10 or later, or an Apple Watch with watchOS 3 or later.

Phone Calling

Requires an iPhone with iOS 8 or later and an activated carrier plan.

SMS

Requires an iPhone with iOS 8.1 or later and an activated carrier plan.

Home

Requires an iPhone with iOS 12 or later and a configured Home app.

AirDrop to iOS and iPadOS devices requires an iPhone or iPad with a Lightning connector or with USB-C and iOS 7 or later.

AirPlay

AirPlay Mirroring requires an Apple TV (2nd generation or later).

AirPlay for web video requires an Apple TV (2nd generation or later).

Peer-to-peer AirPlay requires a Mac (2012 or later) and an Apple TV (3rd generation rev A, model A1469 or later) with Apple TV software 7.0 or later.

Time Machine

Requires an external storage device (sold separately).

Learn more

Maps electric vehicle routing

Requires an iPhone with iOS 14 and a compatible electric vehicle.

Maps license plate restrictions

Requires an iPhone running iOS 14 or an iPad running iPadOS 14.

Boot Camp

Allows Boot Camp installations of Windows 10 on supported Mac models.

Learn more

Exchange Support

Requires Microsoft Office 365, Exchange 2016, Exchange 2013, or Exchange Server 2010. Installing the latest Service Packs is recommended.

Windows Migration

Supports OS X 10.7 or later and Windows 7 or later.

App Store

Available only to persons age 13 or older in the U.S. and many other countries and regions.

Photos

The improved Retouch tool is supported on the following Mac models:

  • MacBook Pro (15-inch and 16-inch models) introduced in 2016 or later
  • iMac (Retina 5K models) introduced in 2014 or later
  • iMac (Retina 4K models) introduced in 2017 or later
  • iMac Pro (2017 or later)
  • Mac Pro introduced in 2013 or later

What’s Included

Applications

  • Apple Books
  • Apple News
  • App Store
  • Automator
  • Calculator
  • Calendar
  • Chess
  • Contacts
  • Dictionary
  • DVD Player
  • FaceTime
  • Find My
  • Font Book
  • Home
  • Image Capture
  • Launchpad
  • Mail
  • Maps
  • Messages
  • Mission Control
  • Music
  • Notes
  • Photo Booth
  • Photos
  • Podcasts
  • Preview
  • QuickTime Player
  • Reminders
  • Safari
  • Siri
  • Stickies
  • Stocks
  • System Preferences
  • TextEdit
  • Time Machine
  • TV
  • Voice Memos

Utilities and Features

  • Activity Monitor
  • AirPort Utility
  • Audio MIDI Setup
  • Bluetooth File Exchange
  • Boot Camp Assistant
  • ColorSync Utility
  • Console
  • Digital Color Meter
  • Disk Utility
  • Grapher
  • Keychain Access
  • Migration Assistant
  • Screenshot
  • Screen Time
  • Script Editor
  • Sidecar
  • System Information
  • Terminal
  • VoiceOver Utility

Languages

  • Arabic
  • Catalan
  • Croatian
  • Simplified Chinese
  • Traditional Chinese
  • Traditional Chinese (Hong Kong)
  • Czech
  • Danish
  • Dutch
  • English (Australia)
  • English (UK)
  • English (U.S.)
  • Finnish
  • French
  • French (Canada)
  • German
  • Greek
  • Hebrew
  • Hindi
  • Hungarian
  • Indonesian
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Korean
  • Malay
  • Norwegian
  • Polish
  • Brazilian Portuguese
  • Portuguese
  • Romanian
  • Russian
  • Slovak
  • Spanish
  • Spanish (Latin America)
  • Swedish
  • Thai
  • Turkish
  • Ukrainian
  • Vietnamese
Sours: https://www.apple.com/macos/how-to-upgrade/

Find out which macOS your Mac is using

Use About This Mac to check the version of Mac operating system installed, and find out whether it's the latest (newest, most recent) version.

Which macOS version is installed?

From the Apple menu  in the corner of your screen, choose About This Mac. You should see the macOS name, such as macOS Big Sur, followed by its version number. If you need to know the build number as well, click the version number to see it.

About This Mac window

Which macOS version is the latest?

macOSLatest version
macOS Big Sur11.6
macOS Catalina
10.15.7
macOS Mojave10.14.6
macOS High Sierra10.13.6
macOS Sierra10.12.6
OS X El Capitan10.11.6
OS X Yosemite10.10.5
OS X Mavericks10.9.5
OS X Mountain Lion10.8.5
OS X Lion10.7.5
Mac OS X Snow Leopard10.6.8
Mac OS X Leopard10.5.8
Mac OS X Tiger10.4.11
Mac OS X Panther10.3.9
Mac OS X Jaguar10.2.8
Mac OS X Puma10.1.5
Mac OS X Cheetah10.0.4

Published Date: 

Sours: https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201260
  1. Gujarati jokes audio online
  2. Thread and supply
  3. Blue guitar paint
  4. Kwikset remote door lock

All macOS versions from 2001 to 2021

macOS is the operating system designed to run on Apple laptops and desktop computers. As Apple grew and strengthened the ecosystem through the years, macOS operating system version history evolved too. 

In this article, we guide you through the evolution of Apple’s operating system, from the first public release in 2001 to the latest macOS Monterey announced at WWDC 2021 on June 7. 

Is there any difference between Mac OS X and macOS? 

No, they are essentially the same thing — just named differently. In fact, three terms were used at different times with reference to Apple’s operating system: Mac OS X, OS X, and macOS. Mac OS X was the official naming through version 10.7, from 2001 to 2011. In the next four years, the OS X names were used. Finally, Apple shifted to “macOS” with the release of macOS High Sierra in 2016. The latter helped standardize the naming of Apple’s operating systems — macOS, iOS, tvOS, iPadOS, etc. 

List of macOS versions

Brief backstory. In 1996, Apple purchased NeXT, the company Steve Jobs built after he had left Apple. The same year, Jobs returned to Apple and helped build the first Mac OS that could compete with Windows. That’s when it became obvious Apple could grow to become a big player. 

The first ancestor of the macOS family was Mac OS X Public Beta released in 2000, followed by a public release of Mac OS X 10.0 in 2001. Let’s recount the stories of all Mac OS X versions, up to the current macOS. 

1. Mac OS X 10.0 (Cheetah)

March 24, 2001: Aqua interface is born with Mac OS X Cheetah. It’s a big step in the evolution of graphical interfaces, with 2D and 3D graphics support, granting an all-new visual experience. Cheetah featured a water theme, which, according to Steve Jobs, “one wanted to lick when they saw it.” Beauty comes at a cost, though. Graphics improvements made Cheetah very slow, which prompted Apple to shift focus from visual experience to performance in the next release. 

2001 Mac OS X Cheetah

source: Apple Wiki | Fandom 

2. Mac OS X 10.1 (Puma) 

September 25, 2001: As you might have noticed, the first generation of Apple’s operating systems was named after animals. Puma arrived with a solid performance boost and a few other functional improvements such as simplified CD and DVD burning, new features in Finder, and more extensive printer support. 

2001 2 Mac OS X 10.1.5 (Puma)

source: Apple Wiki | Fandom 

3. Mac OS X 10.2 (Jaguar)

August 23, 2002: The third release of Mac OS X added search to Finder (can you imagine it, Finder used to exist without it!) Jaguar also brings MPEG-4 support for QuickTime, a range of privacy features, and, for the first time, Accessibility API called Universal Access. Some of the apps born with this release continue living on Mac even today (for example, Address Book, which is now called Contacts). 

Mac OS X 10.2 (Jaguar)

source: VTII Technology 

4. Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther)

October 24, 2003: Meet Safari! The first official web browser made by Apple replaces Internet Explorer on Mac. In fact, Safari was available on Jaguar but it’s the first release where it becomes a default browser. Other than that, Panther adds 150+ new features, including Font Book, Xcode enhancements, and more. 

Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther)

source: Cult of Mac

5. Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger)

April 29, 2005: Did you think Apple TV is pretty new? Well, guess what, it was born in 2005, with the release of Apple’s fifth operating system! Tiger was a pretty big update. It featured Spotlight search, Automator, VoiceOver, and around 200 other improvements. During this time, Apple also switched to Intel’s processors, which made Tiger the first system operating on Macs with Intel chips. 

Mac OSX Tiger

source: Wikipedia

6. Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard)

October 26, 2007: Here comes Leopard, one of the most Mac-changing systems. This time, Mac’s desktop changes significantly, with Dock, a new menu bar, and Stacks. Time Machine, Spotlight enhancements, and support for 64-bit apps arrive too. In fact, Leopard featured so much new stuff that Apple even had to delay the initial release date to finish it all in time. 

Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard)

source: Apple Wiki | Fandom 

7. Mac OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard)

August 28, 2009: Leopard’s successor, Snow Leopard, focused on expanding 64-bit architecture. Most of the native applications were rewritten in 64-bit. Back then, experts used to say that was the first step to a full transition, which, as we know today, became true. Also, the App Store was born in the Snow Leopard era. 

Mac OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard)

source: Wikipedia

8. Mac OS X 10.7 (Lion)

July 20, 2011: With Lion, Apple brings lots of useful enhancements from iOS to Mac OS. Launchpad, multi-touch gestures, and more. Interestingly, many people criticized Mac OS X 10.7 for the so-called “natural scrolling,” which moved the content up when you scroll down. Back then, it seemed more natural to have the content move down — as Windows did it. 

Mac OS X 10.7 (Lion)

source: iXBT

9. OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion)

July 25, 2012: Major apps like Notes, Reminders, and Messages arrive from iOS, turning Mac into a more comfortable spot for managing your daily routine. The most significant update in Mountain Lion is Notification Center, with on-screen banners communicating updates. 

OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion)

source: iXBT

10. OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)

October 22, 2013: Operating system number 10 debuts a range of privacy features, majorly focused on password encryption and storage. This is when iCloud Keychain arrives. Also, OS X 10.9 features new Maps, iBooks, and Tags for the first time, as well as upgrades Notification Center by allowing users to reply directly from notifications. 

OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)

source: Apple Wiki | Fandom 

11. OS X 10.10 (Yosemite)

October 16, 2014: Biggest redesign in years. From small things like thin fonts and new color schemes to the big shift towards flat graphic design, which better matches the design of iOS. What’s more, Yosemite introduces Handoff and Continuity. This once again confirms Apple’s intention to craft a better cross-device experience in the future. 

OS X 10.10 (Yosemite)

source: TechRadar

12. OS X 10.11 (El Capitan)

September 30, 2015: El Capitan is faster, better, stronger than the previous operating system, due to a major performance boost. For example, it allows opening apps 40% faster than old systems. Also, this is the year when Split View’s dual-pane emerges, opening up new possibilities for managing windows on Mac. 

OS X 10.11 (El Capitan)

source: Softpedia 

13. macOS 10.12 (Sierra)

September 20, 2016: With Sierra, Apple shifts to the “macOS” naming. Again, more iOS perks arrive, such as unlocking a Mac with Apple Watch. There’s also a new Storage Optimization feature with a detailed overview of storage and suggestions on how to free up disk space. And, hey Siri! 

macOS 10.12 (Sierra)

source: TechRadar

14. macOS 10.13 (High Sierra)

September 25, 2017: macOS High Sierra adds a new video standard called HEIC and a transition to Apple File System (APFS), which is an improved alterantive to its predecessor file system HFS+. Apart from that, there are a few enhancements in Safari, Mail, and Photo — but nothing major. 

High Sierra

source: Macworld

15. macOS 10.14 (Mojave)

September 24, 2018: That’s when things go dark. We mean Dark Mode! Mac users can now move through their day-and-night routine, with the colors of the screen moving with them, thanks to Dynamic Desktop feature. There are more and more apps that arrive from iOS, including Stocks, News, and Home. 

macOS 10.14 (Mojave)

source: apple.com

16. macOS 10.15 (Catalina)

October 7, 2019: macOS Catalina marks the death of iTunes, splitting Apple’s top-destination for media content into three dedicated apps — Music, Podcasts, and Movies. Apple continues aligning iOS and macOS with Sidecar, a feature that lets your connect an iPad screen to your Mac, and the ability for developers to port iOS apps to macOS. 

Macos Catalina 10.15

source: Mobile Review

17. macOS 11 (Big Sur)

November 19, 2020: There’s no macOS 10.16, because Big Sur deserves a more epic version name — 11.0. Bringing a huge design change and transition to Apple’s M1 Macs, macOS Big Sur is the one to remember. This is the first operating system that allows running iOS apps natively on Mac — the so-called Universal apps. 

macOS 11 (Big Sur)

source: apple.com

18. macOS 12 (Monterey)

Fall 2021: Announced on June 7, macOS Monterey brings Shortcuts — the ability to set up quick actions with different apps to automate your flow. Apart from that, there’s Universal Control, a natural transitioning across your Mac and iOS devices (for example, you can move your cursor between Mac and iPad); redesigned Safari with tab groups, and a range of cool FaceTime enhancements. More on macOS 12 Monterey here. 

macOS 12 (Monterey)

source: apple.com

What’s the latest macOS? 

New operating systems for Mac not only bring new features, they bring better performance, enhanced privacy, and better workflow for those working across devices. If you’re wondering whether to upgrade to the newest macOS, we’d say yes, it’s worth it. 

How to check the latest macOS on your Mac 

Before you upgrade, you should find out what your current macOS is. Some macOS versions can’t be “skipped.” For example, if you want to upgrade to Lion, you should first install Snow Lion. Here’s how to check your operating system version on Mac: 

  1. Go to Apple menu > About This Mac
  2. See the name of your current macOS in the Overview section
  3. To check for pending macOS updates, choose Software Update. 

check the latest macOS on your Mac

How to update to the latest version of macOS

Older Mac OS X releases or newest macOS, the process of updating operating systems follows the same logic: 

  1. First, you backup your data to make it available on the new macOS
  2. Second, you make sure you have enough space on Mac to install new macOS
  3. Third, you download and install the new update. 

The first step is essential. Without securely backing up your disk, you might lose access to the images, docs, and whatever essential stuff stored on Mac. We recommend Get Backup Pro or ChronoSync Express to run a backup. The former can back up selected files and the latter does a great job backing up folders. So you don’t have to back up the whole disk, with all the clutter stored on it. Here’s how to create a backup with Get Backup Pro:

  1. Click on the “+” button in Backups to create a new project
  2. Choose a destination for your backup
  3. Click File+ to add files for backup
  4. Press Start. 

Backup pro macos

Back up folders with ChronoSync Express:  

  1. Choose “Create a new synchronization task” on the right
  2. Name the project
  3. Choose folders for backup 
  4. Choose your backup destination
  5. Hit the arrow button to start backing up. 

ChronoSync Express mac

Once you’ve secured the data, go ahead and clean your Mac with CleanMyMac X. Remove clutter, system files, unused apps and app caches, etc. This way, you’ll free up lots of storage and get your Mac ready for a new macOS installation. We recommend to start with a Smart Scan, but if you want to go for a deeper cleanup, go through dedicated modules, they all work like magic. 

CleanMyMac X

Nice work! Now you’re ready to install macOS 12 Monterey or any other macOS version you want to try. For detailed instructions on how to update macOS, read this article.

Sours: https://setapp.com/how-to/full-list-of-all-macos-versions
macOS Big Sur: What's New?

Mac OS Compatibility Guide

No

No

YesOS X 10.10.2 and later
Yes Handoff Support
(Bluetooth 4.0)

YesYes Handoff Support
(Bluetooth 4.0)

Yes

Yes

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Yes Handoff Support
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YesYes Handoff Support
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YesOS X 10.10.3 and later
Yes Handoff Support
(Bluetooth 4.0)

YesYes Handoff Support
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Yes

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YesOS X 10.9.4 and later
Yes Handoff Support
(Bluetooth 4.0)

YesYes Handoff Support
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Yes

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No

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YesOS X 10.9.4 and later
Yes Handoff Support
(Bluetooth 4.0)

YesYes Handoff Support
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Yes

Yes

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No

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YesYes Handoff Support
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YesYes Handoff Support
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YesYes Handoff Support
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No

Yes

YesYes Handoff Support
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YesYes Handoff Support
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Yes10.8.1 and Later

Yes

YesYes Handoff Support
(Bluetooth 4.0)

YesYes Handoff Support
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YesNo Handoff Support
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YesNo Handoff Support
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No

Sours: https://eshop.macsales.com/guides/Mac_OS_X_Compatibility

Os latest mac

A crop of the official macOS Big Sur default desktop background

The latest version of macOS is macOS 11.0 Big Sur, which Apple released on November 12, 2020. Apple releases a new major version roughly once every year. These upgrades are free and are available in the Mac App Store.

The Latest Version is macOS Big Sur

Apple’s newest Mac operating system is macOS 11.0, also known as macOS Big Sur. This is the sixteenthmajor release of the Mac operating system.

macOS 11.0 Big Sur drops support for some Macs that ran macOS 10.15 Catalina. Here’s how to tell if your Mac can run Big Sur.

Big Sur features a redesign with simplified toolbars, buttons, and menus. It looks a lot more like Apple’s iOS and iPadsOS. Other features from Apple’s mobile operating systems were introduced here, including a Control Center with shortcuts to frequently used tasks. Under the hood, however, this is still the same powerful macOS operating system you’re used to.

macOS 11 Big Sur Interface

RELATED:What's New in macOS 11.0 Big Sur, Available Now

How to Check if You Have the Latest Version

To see which version of macOS you have installed, click the Apple menu icon at the top left corner of your screen, and then select the “About This Mac” command.

The name and version number of your Mac’s operating system appears on the “Overview” tab in the About This Mac window. If you see “macOS Big Sur” and version “11.0”, you have Big Sur. As long as it starts with “11.”, you have Big Sur installed.

In the screenshot below, we have version 10.14 of macOS Mojave installed. For example, if it says you have macOS Mojave version “10.14.1” installed, this means you have Mojave with the “.1” update installed. These smaller updates contain security patches and other fixes. They appear as updates in the Software Update pane.

RELATED:How to Check Which Version of macOS You're Using

How to Update to the Latest Version

If you don’t yet have macOS Big Sur installed, you can easily update to it from the Mac App Store. You can either open the App Store and look for Big Sur or click the following link to open the Big Sur page on the Mac App Store.

Click the “Download” or “Get” button on the macOS Big Sur page to download Big Sur and install it on your Mac. The operating system is over 12.6 GB GB in size so it may take a while. The installer will automatically open after the download is finished. Click through it to install Big Sur on your Mac.

Note: We highly recommend backing up your Mac with Time Machine (or however you back up) before upgrading your operating system. The upgrade should leave everything in place, but it’s always better to play it safe just in case.

Apple only supports the most recent three versions of macOS with security updates, so you have to upgrade regularly to ensure you have the latest security patches.

RELATED:Which Releases of macOS Are Supported With Security Updates?

Sours: https://www.howtogeek.com/352753/what-is-the-latest-version-of-macos/
My Favorite Mac OS Monterey Features That Matter

macOS

Operating system for Apple computers

"OSX" and "OS X" redirect here. For other uses, see OSX (disambiguation).

This article is about the current Apple operating system for Mac computers. For the previous operating system up to Mac OS 9, see Classic Mac OS. For an overview of all Mac operating systems from Apple, see Macintosh operating systems.

MacOS wordmark (2017).svg
MacOS Big Sur Desktop.png

Screenshot of macOS Big Sur

DeveloperApple Inc.
Written in
OS familyUnix, Macintosh
Working stateCurrent
Source modelClosed source (with open source components)
Initial releaseMarch 24, 2001; 20 years ago (2001-03-24)
Latest release11.6[3] (20G165)[4] (September 13, 2021; 31 days ago (2021-09-13)) [±]
Latest preview12.0 beta 10[5] (21A5552a)[6] (October 13, 2021; 1 day ago (2021-10-13)) [±]
Marketing targetPersonal computing
Available in39 languages[7]

List of languages

[as of macOS Catalina]: Arabic, Catalan, Croatian, Chinese (Hong Kong), Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (Australia), English (United Kingdom), English (United States), Finnish, French (Canada), French (France), German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish (Latin America), Spanish (Spain), Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese

Update method
Platforms
Kernel typeHybrid (XNU)
UserlandSUS
Default
user interface
Aqua (Graphical)
LicenseCommercial software, proprietary software
Preceded byClassic Mac OS, NeXTSTEP
Official websitewww.apple.com/macos
Supported

macOS (;[8] previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a proprietarygraphicaloperating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac computers. Within the market of desktop and laptop computers it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Windows NT and ahead of Chrome OS.

macOS succeeded the classic Mac OS, a Macintosh operating system with nine releases from 1984 to 1999. During this time, Apple cofounder Steve Jobs had left Apple and started another company, NeXT, developing the NeXTSTEP platform that would later be acquired by Apple to form the basis of macOS.

The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. All releases from Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard[9] and thereafter are UNIX 03 certified,[10] except for OS X 10.7 Lion.[11] Apple's mobile operating system, iOS, has been considered a variant of macOS.[12]

A prominent part of macOS's original brand identity was the use of Roman numeral X, pronounced "ten" as in Mac OS X and also the iPhone X, as well as code naming each release after species of big cats, or places within California.[13] Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016 to align with the branding of Apple's other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. After sixteen distinct versions of macOS 10, macOS Big Sur was presented as version 11 in 2020, and macOS Monterey was presented as version 12 in 2021.

macOS has supported three major processor architectures, beginning with PowerPC-based Macs in 1999. In 2006, Apple transitioned to the Intel architecture with a line of Macs using Intel Core processors. In 2020, Apple began the Apple silicon transition, using self-designed, 64-bit ARM-based Apple M1 processors on new Mac computers.

History

Development

Simplified history of Unix-likeoperating systems

Main article: macOS version history

The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-likeNeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989. The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD.[14] Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-orientedGUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language.

Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all were eventually abandoned.[15] This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system.[16] This purchase also led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, and then the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals. The project was first code named "Rhapsody" and then officially named Mac OS X.[17][18]

Mac OS X

Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers; until 2020, versions of macOS retained the major version number "10". The letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to the number 10, a Roman numeral, and Apple has stated that it should be pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is also commonly pronounced like the letter "X".[19][20] Previous Macintosh operating systems (versions of the classic Mac OS) were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9.[21][19] As of 2020 and 2021, Apple reverted to Arabic numeral versioning for successive releases, macOS 11 Big Sur and macOS 12 Monterey, as they have done for the iPhone 11 and iPhone 12 following the iPhone X.

The first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system. Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance.

The consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface, but criticizing it for sluggish performance.[22] With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X.[23]Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as 'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as 'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'.[22][24][25]

Apple rapidly developed several new releases of Mac OS X.[26] Siracusa's review of version 10.3, Panther, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases."[27] Version 10.4, Tiger, reportedly shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file searching and improved graphics processing, that Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable performance.[28]

As the operating system evolved, it moved away from the classic Mac OS, with applications being added and removed.[29] Considering music to be a key market, Apple developed the iPod music player and music software for the Mac, including iTunes and GarageBand.[30] Targeting the consumer and media markets, Apple emphasized its new "digital lifestyle" applications such as the iLife suite, integrated home entertainment through the Front Row media center and the Safari web browser. With increasing popularity of the internet, Apple offered additional online services, including the .Mac, MobileMe and most recently iCloud products. It later began selling third-party applications through the Mac App Store.

Newer versions of Mac OS X also included modifications to the general interface, moving away from the striped gloss and transparency of the initial versions. Some applications began to use a brushed metal appearance, or non-pinstriped title bar appearance in version 10.4.[31] In Leopard, Apple announced a unification of the interface, with a standardized gray-gradient window style.[32][33]

In 2006, the first Intel Macs released used a specialized version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.[34]

A key development for the system was the announcement and release of the iPhone from 2007 onwards. While Apple's previous iPod media players used a minimal operating system, the iPhone used an operating system based on Mac OS X, which would later be called "iPhone OS" and then iOS. The simultaneous release of two operating systems based on the same frameworks placed tension on Apple, which cited the iPhone as forcing it to delay Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard.[35] However, after Apple opened the iPhone to third-party developers its commercial success drew attention to Mac OS X, with many iPhone software developers showing interest in Mac development.[36]

In 2007, Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was the sole release with universal binary components, allowing installation on both Intel Macs and select PowerPC Macs.[37] It is also the final release with PowerPC Mac support. Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was the first version of OS X to be built exclusively for Intel Macs, and the final release with 32-bit Intel Mac support.[38] The name was intended to signal its status as an iteration of Leopard, focusing on technical and performance improvements rather than user-facing features; indeed it was explicitly branded to developers as being a 'no new features' release.[39] Since its release, several OS X or macOS releases (namely OS X Mountain Lion, OS X El Capitan, macOS High Sierra, and macOS Monterey) follow this pattern, with a name derived from its predecessor, similar to the 'tick–tock model' used by Intel.

In two succeeding versions, Lion and Mountain Lion, Apple moved some applications to a highly skeuomorphic style of design inspired by contemporary versions of iOS while simplifying some elements by making controls such as scroll bars fade out when not in use.[24] This direction was, like brushed metal interfaces, unpopular with some users, although it continued a trend of greater animation and variety in the interface previously seen in design aspects such as the Time Machinebackup utility, which presented past file versions against a swirling nebula, and the glossy translucent dock of Leopard and Snow Leopard.[40] In addition, with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, Apple ceased to release separate server versions of Mac OS X, selling server tools as a separate downloadable application through the Mac App Store. A review described the trend in the server products as becoming "cheaper and simpler... shifting its focus from large businesses to small ones."[41]

OS X

OS X logo from 2012 to 2013

In 2012, with the release of OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, the name of the system was shortened from Mac OS X to OS X. That year, Apple removed the head of OS X development, Scott Forstall, and design was changed towards a more minimal direction.[42] Apple's new user interface design, using deep color saturation, text-only buttons and a minimal, 'flat' interface, was debuted with iOS 7 in 2013. With OS X engineers reportedly working on iOS 7, the version released in 2013, OS X 10.9 Mavericks, was something of a transitional release, with some of the skeuomorphic design removed, while most of the general interface of Mavericks remained unchanged.[43] The next version, OS X 10.10 Yosemite, adopted a design similar to iOS 7 but with greater complexity suitable for an interface controlled with a mouse.[44]

From 2012 onwards, the system has shifted to an annual release schedule similar to that of iOS. It also steadily cut the cost of updates from Snow Leopard onwards, before removing upgrade fees altogether from 2013 onwards.[45] Some journalists and third-party software developers have suggested that this decision, while allowing more rapid feature release, meant less opportunity to focus on stability, with no version of OS X recommendable for users requiring stability and performance above new features.[46] Apple's 2015 update, OS X 10.11 El Capitan, was announced to focus specifically on stability and performance improvements.[47]

macOS

In 2016, with the release of macOS 10.12 Sierra, the name was changed from OS X to macOS to align it with the branding of Apple's other primary operating systems: iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.[48] macOS 10.12 Sierra's main features are the introduction of Siri to macOS, Optimized Storage, improvements to included applications, and greater integration with Apple's iPhone and Apple Watch. The Apple File System (APFS) was announced at Apple's annual Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) in June 2016 as a replacement for HFS+, a highly criticized file system.[49]

Apple previewed macOS 10.13 High Sierra at WWDC 2017, before releasing it later that year.[50] When running on solid state drives, it uses APFS, rather than HFS+.[51] Its successor, macOS 10.14 Mojave, was released in 2018, adding a dark user interface option and a dynamic wallpaper setting.[52] It was succeeded by macOS 10.15 Catalina in 2019, which replaces iTunes with separate apps for different types of media, and introduces the Catalyst system for porting iOS apps.[53]

In 2020, Apple previewed macOS 11 Big Sur at the WWDC 2020. This was the first increment in the primary version number of macOS since the release of Mac OS X Public Beta in 2000; updates to macOS 11 were given 11.x numbers, matching the version numbering scheme used by Apple's other operating systems. Big Sur brought major changes to the UI and was the first version to run on the ARM instruction set.[54] The new numbering system was continued in 2021 with macOS 12 Monterey.

Architecture

Main article: Architecture of macOS

At macOS's core is a POSIX-compliant operating system built on top of the XNUkernel, with standard Unix facilities available from the command line interface. Apple has released this family of software as a free and open source operating system named Darwin. On top of Darwin, Apple layered a number of components, including the Aqua interface and the Finder, to complete the GUI-based operating system which is macOS.[56]

With its original introduction as Mac OS X, the system brought a number of new capabilities to provide a more stable and reliable platform than its predecessor, the classic Mac OS. For example, pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's ability to run multiple applications simultaneously without them interrupting or corrupting each other. Many aspects of macOS's architecture are derived from OPENSTEP, which was designed to be portable, to ease the transition from one platform to another. For example, NeXTSTEP was ported from the original 68k-based NeXT workstations to x86 and other architectures before NeXT was purchased by Apple,[57] and OPENSTEP was later ported to the PowerPC architecture as part of the Rhapsody project.

Prior to macOS High Sierra, and on drives other than solid state drives (SSDs), the default file system is HFS+, which it inherited from the classic Mac OS. Operating system designer Linus Torvalds has criticized HFS+, saying it is "probably the worst file system ever", whose design is "actively corrupting user data". He criticized the case insensitivity of file names, a design made worse when Apple extended the file system to support Unicode.[58][59]

The Darwin subsystem in macOS manages the file system, which includes the Unix permissions layer. In 2003 and 2005, two Macworld editors expressed criticism of the permission scheme; Ted Landau called misconfigured permissions "the most common frustration" in macOS, while Rob Griffiths suggested that some users may even have to reset permissions every day, a process which can take up to 15 minutes.[60] More recently, another Macworld editor, Dan Frakes, called the procedure of repairing permissions vastly overused.[61] He argues that macOS typically handles permissions properly without user interference, and resetting permissions should only be tried when problems emerge.[62]

The architecture of macOS incorporates a layered design:[63] the layered frameworks aid rapid development of applications by providing existing code for common tasks.[64] Apple provides its own software development tools, most prominently an integrated development environment called Xcode. Xcode provides interfaces to compilers that support several programming languages including C, C++, Objective-C, and Swift. For the Mac transition to Intel processors, it was modified so that developers could build their applications as a universal binary, which provides compatibility with both the Intel-based and PowerPC-based Macintosh lines.[65] First and third-party applications can be controlled programmatically using the AppleScript framework,[66] retained from the classic Mac OS,[67] or using the newer Automator application that offers pre-written tasks that do not require programming knowledge.[68]

Software compatibility

See also: List of Macintosh software

  1. ^Messages 8.0bArchived April 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine was a beta release that only functioned from February 16 to December 12, 2012. Afterwards, users could either revert to iChat or upgrade to a newer version of OS X (10.8 "Mountain Lion" for US$19.99, or 10.9 "Mavericks" or newer for free) to continue using Messages.
  2. ^Keynote 1.0 is the only iLife program that is compatible with Mac OS X 10.2 "Jaguar". Two minor updates, 1.1 and 1.1.1, can be applied to this version.
  3. ^iTunes 2.0.4 can only run if Classic is installed. Otherwise, Mac OS X 10.0 can only run iTunes 1.1.1 natively.

Apple offered two main APIs to develop software natively for macOS: Cocoa and Carbon. Cocoa was a descendant of APIs inherited from OPENSTEP with no ancestry from the classic Mac OS, while Carbon was an adaptation of classic Mac OS APIs, allowing Mac software to be minimally rewritten to run natively on Mac OS X.[18]

The Cocoa API was created as the result of a 1993 collaboration between NeXT Computer and Sun Microsystems. This heritage is highly visible for Cocoa developers, since the "NS" prefix is ubiquitous in the framework, standing variously for NeXTSTEP or NeXT/Sun. The official OPENSTEP API, published in September 1994, was the first to split the API between Foundation and ApplicationKit and the first to use the "NS" prefix.[57] Traditionally, Cocoa programs have been mostly written in Objective-C, with Java as an alternative. However, on July 11, 2005, Apple announced that "features added to Cocoa in Mac OS X versions later than 10.4 will not be added to the Cocoa-Java programming interface."[78] macOS also used to support the Java Platform as a "preferred software package"—in practice this means that applications written in Java fit as neatly into the operating system as possible while still being cross-platform compatible, and that graphical user interfaces written in Swing look almost exactly like native Cocoa interfaces. Since 2014, Apple has promoted its new programming language Swift as the preferred language for software development on Apple platforms.

Apple's original plan with macOS was to require all developers to rewrite their software into the Cocoa APIs. This caused much outcry among existing Mac developers, who threatened to abandon the platform rather than invest in a costly rewrite, and the idea was shelved.[18][79] To permit a smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X, the CarbonApplication Programming Interface (API) was created.[18] Applications written with Carbon were initially able to run natively on both classic Mac OS and Mac OS X, although this ability was later dropped as Mac OS X developed. Carbon was not included in the first product sold as Mac OS X: the little-used original release of Mac OS X Server 1.0, which also did not include the Aqua interface.[80] Apple limited further development of Carbon from the release of Leopard onwards and announced that Carbon applications would not run at 64-bit.[79][18] A number of macOS applications continued to use Carbon for some time afterwards, especially ones with heritage dating back to the classic Mac OS and for which updates would be difficult, uneconomic or not necessary. This included Microsoft Office up to Office 2016, and Photoshop up to CS5.[81][79] Early versions of macOS could also run some classic Mac OS applications through the Classic Environment with performance limitations; this feature was removed from 10.5 onwards and all Macs using Intel processors.

Because macOS is POSIX compliant, many software packages written for the other Unix-like systems including Linux can be recompiled to run on it, including much scientific and technical software.[82] Third-party projects such as Homebrew, Fink, MacPorts and pkgsrc provide pre-compiled or pre-formatted packages. Apple and others have provided versions of the X Window System graphical interface which can allow these applications to run with an approximation of the macOS look-and-feel.[83][84][85] The current Apple-endorsed method is the open-source XQuartz project; earlier versions could use the X11 application provided by Apple, or before that the XDarwin project.[86]

Applications can be distributed to Macs and installed by the user from any source and by any method such as downloading (with or without code signing, available via an Apple developer account) or through the Mac App Store, a marketplace of software maintained by Apple through a process requiring the company's approval. Apps installed through the Mac App Store run within a sandbox, restricting their ability to exchange information with other applications or modify the core operating system and its features. This has been cited as an advantage, by allowing users to install apps with confidence that they should not be able to damage their system, but also as a disadvantage due to blocking the Mac App Store's use for professional applications that require elevated privileges.[87] Applications without any code signature cannot be run by default except from a computer's administrator account.[89][90]

Apple produces macOS applications. Some are included with macOS and some sold separately. This includes iWork, Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, iLife, and the database application FileMaker. Numerous other developers also offer software for macOS.

In 2018, Apple introduced an application layer, reportedly codenamed Marzipan, to port iOS apps to macOS.[91][92] macOS Mojave included ports of four first-party iOS apps including Home and News, and it was announced that the API would be available for third-party developers to use from 2019.[93][94][95]

Hardware compatibility

Operating system Supported systems[96]RAM requirement
12
  • MacBook (Early 2016 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Early 2015 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Early 2015 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Late 2014 or newer)
  • iMac (Late 2015 or newer)
  • iMac Pro (2017 or newer)
  • Mac Pro (Late 2013 or newer)
4 GB
11
  • MacBook (2015 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (2013 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Late 2013 or newer)
  • Mac mini (2014 or newer)
  • iMac (2014 or newer)
  • iMac Pro (2017)
  • Mac Pro (2013 or newer)
10.15
  • MacBook (Early 2015 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Mid 2012 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2012 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Late 2012 or newer)
  • iMac (Late 2012 or newer)
  • iMac Pro (2017)
  • Mac Pro (Late 2013 or newer)
10.14
  • MacBook (Early 2015 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Mid 2012 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2012 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Late 2012 or newer)
  • iMac (Late 2012 or newer)
  • iMac Pro (2017)
  • Mac Pro (Late 2013 or newer; Mid 2010 and Mid 2012 models
    with recommended Metal-capable graphics cards[97])
2 GB
10.12 – 10.13
  • MacBook (Late 2009 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2010 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Late 2010 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Mid 2010 or newer)
  • iMac (Late 2009 or newer)
  • Mac Pro (Mid 2010 or newer)
10.8 – 10.11
  • MacBook (Late 2008 Aluminum, or Early 2009 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid/Late 2007 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Late 2008 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Early 2009 or newer)
  • iMac (Mid 2007 or newer)
  • Mac Pro (Early 2008 or newer)
  • Xserve (Early 2009)
10.7Intel Macs (64-bit)[98]
Rosetta support dropped from 10.7 and newer.
10.6Intel Macs (32-bit or 64-bit)[98]1 GB
10.5G4, G5 and Intel Macs (32-bit or 64-bit) at 867 MHz or faster
Classic support dropped from 10.5 and newer.
512 MB
10.4Macs with built-in FireWire and either a New World ROM or Intel processor 256 MB
10.3Macs with a New World ROM[99]128 MB
10.0 – 10.2G3, G4 and G5 iBook and PowerBook, Power Mac and iMac
(except PowerBook G3 "Kanga")

Tools such as XPostFacto and patches applied to the installation media have been developed by third parties to enable installation of newer versions of macOS on systems not officially supported by Apple. This includes a number of pre-G3 Power Macintosh systems that can be made to run up to and including Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, all G3-based Macs which can run up to and including Tiger, and sub-867 MHz G4 Macs can run Leopard by removing the restriction from the installation DVD or entering a command in the Mac's Open Firmware interface to tell the Leopard Installer that it has a clock rate of 867 MHz or greater. Except for features requiring specific hardware such as graphics acceleration or DVD writing, the operating system offers the same functionality on all supported hardware.

As most Mac hardware components, or components similar to those, since the Intel transition are available for purchase,[100] some technology-capable groups have developed software to install macOS on non-Apple computers. These are referred to as Hackintoshes, a portmanteau of the words "hack" and "Macintosh". This violates Apple's EULA (and is therefore unsupported by Apple technical support, warranties etc.), but communities that cater to personal users, who do not install for resale and profit, have generally been ignored by Apple.[101][102][103] These self-made computers allow more flexibility and customization of hardware, but at a cost of leaving the user more responsible for their own machine, such as on matter of data integrity or security.[104]Psystar, a business that attempted to profit from selling macOS on non-Apple certified hardware, was sued by Apple in 2008.[105]

PowerPC–Intel transition

Steve Jobs talks about the transition to Intel processors.

Main article: Mac transition to Intel processors

In April 2002, eWeek announced a rumor that Apple had a version of Mac OS X code-named Marklar, which ran on Intel x86 processors. The idea behind Marklar was to keep Mac OS X running on an alternative platform should Apple become dissatisfied with the progress of the PowerPC platform.[106] These rumors subsided until late in May 2005, when various media outlets, such as The Wall Street Journal[107] and CNET,[108] announced that Apple would unveil Marklar in the coming months.[109][110][111]

On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced in his keynote address at WWDC that Apple would be making the transition from PowerPC to Intel processors over the following two years, and that Mac OS X would support both platforms during the transition. Jobs also confirmed rumors that Apple had versions of Mac OS X running on Intel processors for most of its developmental life. Intel-based Macs would run a new recompiled version of OS X along with Rosetta, a binary translation layer which enables software compiled for PowerPC Mac OS X to run on Intel Mac OS X machines.[112] The system was included with Mac OS X versions up to version 10.6.8. Apple dropped support for Classic mode on the new Intel Macs. Third party emulation software such as Mini vMac, Basilisk II and SheepShaver provided support for some early versions of Mac OS. A new version of Xcode and the underlying command-line compilers supported building universal binaries that would run on either architecture.[114]

PowerPC-only software is supported with Apple's official emulation software, Rosetta, though applications eventually had to be rewritten to run properly on the newer versions released for Intel processors. Apple initially encouraged developers to produce universal binaries with support for both PowerPC and Intel.[115] PowerPC binaries suffer a performance penalty when run on Intel Macs through Rosetta. Moreover, some PowerPC software, such as kernel extensions and System Preferences plugins, are not supported on Intel Macs at all. Some PowerPC applications would not run on macOS at all. Plugins for Safari need to be compiled for the same platform as Safari, so when Safari is running on Intel, it requires plug-ins that have been compiled as Intel-only or universal binaries, so PowerPC-only plug-ins will not work.[116] While Intel Macs can run PowerPC, Intel, and universal binaries, PowerPC Macs support only universal and PowerPC builds.

Support for the PowerPC platform was dropped following the transition. In 2009, Apple announced at WWDC that Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard would drop support for PowerPC processors and be Intel-only.[117] Rosetta continued to be offered as an optional download or installation choice in Snow Leopard before it was discontinued with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion.[118] In addition, new versions of Mac OS X first- and third-party software increasingly required Intel processors, including new versions of iLife, iWork, Aperture and Logic Pro.

Intel–ARM transition

Main article: Mac transition to Apple silicon

A Illustration of Apple's M1 processor.

Rumors of Apple shifting Macs to the ARM processors used by iOS devices began circulating as early as 2011,[119] and ebbed and flowed throughout the 2010s.[120] Rumors intensified in 2020, when numerous reports announced that the company would announce its shift to its custom processors at WWDC.[121]

Apple officially announced its shift to processors designed in-house on June 22, 2020, at WWDC 2020, with the transition planned to last for two years.[122] The first release of macOS to support ARM is macOS Big Sur.

The change in processor architecture allows Macs with ARM processors to be able to run natively with iOS and iPadOS apps.[123]

Features

Aqua user interface

Main article: Aqua (user interface)

One of the major differences between the classic Mac OS and the current macOS was the addition of Aqua, a graphical user interface with water-like elements, in the first major release of Mac OS X. Every window element, text, graphic, or widget is drawn on-screen using spatial anti-aliasing technology.[124]ColorSync, a technology introduced many years before, was improved and built into the core drawing engine, to provide color matching for printing and multimedia professionals.[125] Also, drop shadows were added around windows and isolated text elements to provide a sense of depth. New interface elements were integrated, including sheets (dialog boxes attached to specific windows) and drawers, which would slide out and provide options.

The use of soft edges, translucent colors, and pinstripes, similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs, brought more texture and color to the user interface when compared to what Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X Server 1.0's "Platinum" appearance had offered. According to Siracusa, the introduction of Aqua and its departure from the then conventional look "hit like a ton of bricks."[126]Bruce Tognazzini (who founded the original Apple Human Interface Group) said that the Aqua interface in Mac OS X 10.0 represented a step backwards in usability compared with the original Mac OS interface.[127][128] Third-party developers started producing skins for customizable applications and other operating systems which mimicked the Aqua appearance. To some extent, Apple has used the successful transition to this new design as leverage, at various times threatening legal action against people who make or distribute software with an interface the company says is derived from its copyrighted design.[129]

Apple has continued to change aspects of the macOS appearance and design, particularly with tweaks to the appearance of windows and the menu bar. Since 2012, Apple has sold many of its Mac models with high-resolution Retina displays, and macOS and its APIs have extensive support for resolution-independent development on supporting high-resolution displays. Reviewers have described Apple's support for the technology as superior to that on Windows.[130][131][132]

The human interface guidelines published by Apple for macOS are followed by many applications, giving them consistent user interface and keyboard shortcuts.[133] In addition, new services for applications are included, which include spelling and grammar checkers, special characters palette, color picker, font chooser and dictionary; these global features are present in every Cocoa application, adding consistency. The graphics system OpenGL composites windows onto the screen to allow hardware-accelerated drawing. This technology, introduced in version 10.2, is called Quartz Extreme, a component of Quartz. Quartz's internal imaging model correlates well with the Portable Document Format (PDF) imaging model, making it easy to output PDF to multiple devices.[125] As a side result, PDF viewing and creating PDF documents from any application are built-in features.[134] Reflecting its popularity with design users, macOS also has system support for a variety of professional video and image formats and includes an extensive pre-installed font library, featuring many prominent brand-name designs.[135]

Components

Main article: List of macOS components

The Finder is a file browser allowing quick access to all areas of the computer, which has been modified throughout subsequent releases of macOS.[136][137]Quick Look has been part of the Finder since version 10.5. It allows for dynamic previews of files, including videos and multi-page documents without opening any other applications. Spotlight, a file searching technology which has been integrated into the Finder since version 10.4, allows rapid real-time searches of data files; mail messages; photos; and other information based on item properties (metadata) and/or content.[138][139] macOS makes use of a Dock, which holds file and folder shortcuts as well as minimized windows.

Apple added Exposé in version 10.3 (called Mission Control since version 10.7), a feature which includes three functions to help accessibility between windows and desktop. Its functions are to instantly display all open windows as thumbnails for easy navigation to different tasks, display all open windows as thumbnails from the current application, and hide all windows to access the desktop.[140]FileVault is optional encryption of the user's files with the 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128).[141]

Features introduced in version 10.4 include Automator, an application designed to create an automatic workflow for different tasks;[142]Dashboard, a full-screen group of small applications called desktop widgets that can be called up and dismissed in one keystroke;[143] and Front Row, a media viewer interface accessed by the Apple Remote.[144] Sync Services allows applications to access a centralized extensible database for various elements of user data, including calendar and contact items. The operating system then managed conflicting edits and data consistency.[145]

All system icons are scalable up to 512×512 pixels as of version 10.5 to accommodate various places where they appear in larger size, including for example the Cover Flow view, a three-dimensional graphical user interface included with iTunes, the Finder, and other Apple products for visually skimming through files and digital media libraries via cover artwork. That version also introduced Spaces, a virtual desktop implementation which enables the user to have more than one desktop and display them in an Exposé-like interface;[146] an automatic backup technology called Time Machine, which allows users to view and restore previous versions of files and application data;[147] and Screen Sharing was built in for the first time.[148]

In more recent releases, Apple has developed support for emoji characters by including the proprietary Apple Color Emoji font.[149][150] Apple has also connected macOS with social networks such as Twitter and Facebook through the addition of share buttons for content such as pictures and text.[151] Apple has brought several applications and features that originally debuted in iOS, its mobile operating system, to macOS in recent releases, notably the intelligent personal assistantSiri, which was introduced in version 10.12 of macOS.[152][153]

Multilingual support

There are 39 system languages available in macOS for the user at the moment of installation; the system language is used throughout the entire operating system environment.[7] Input methods for typing in dozens of scripts can be chosen independently of the system language.[154] Recent updates have added increased support for Chinese characters and interconnections with popular social networks in China.[155][156][157][158]

Updating methods

macOS can be updated using the Software Update preference pane in System Preferences or the command line utility. Until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, a separate Software Update application performed this functionality. In Mountain Lion and later, this was merged into the Mac App Store application, although the underlying update mechanism remains unchanged and is fundamentally different from the download mechanism used when purchasing an App Store application. In macOS 10.14 Mojave, the updating function was moved again to the Software Update preference pane.

Release history

Main article: macOS version history § Releases

Box/Mac App Store artwork for every version of macOS from Mac OS X Cheetah to macOS Big Sur. Left to right: Cheetah/Puma(1), Jaguar(2), Panther(3), Tiger(4), Leopard(5), Snow Leopard(6), Lion(7), Mountain Lion(8), Mavericks(9), Yosemite(10), El Capitan(11), Sierra(12), High Sierra(13), Mojave(14), Catalina(15), and Big Sur(16).
Note 1 The PowerMac G5 had special Jaguar builds.
Note 2 Tiger did not support 64-bit GUI applications, only 64-bit CLI applications.[179][180]
Note 3 32-bit (but not 64-bit) PowerPC applications were supported on Intel processors with Rosetta.
Note 4 64-bit Intel applications are supported on Apple silicon Macs with Rosetta 2. However, Intel-based Macs are unable to run ARM-based applications, such as iOS and iPadOS apps.

With the exception of Mac OS X Server 1.0 and the original public beta, OS X versions were named after big cats until OS X 10.9 Mavericks, when Apple switched to using California locations. Prior to its release, Mac OS X 10.0 was code named "Cheetah" internally at Apple, and Mac OS X 10.1 was code named internally as "Puma". After the immense buzz surrounding Mac OS X 10.2, codenamed "Jaguar", Apple's product marketing began openly using the code names to promote the operating system. Mac OS X 10.3 was marketed as "Panther", Mac OS X 10.4 as "Tiger", Mac OS X 10.5 as "Leopard", Mac OS X 10.6 as "Snow Leopard", Mac OS X 10.7 as "Lion", OS X 10.8 as "Mountain Lion", and OS X 10.9 as "Mavericks".

"Panther", "Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple,[181][182][183] but "Cheetah", "Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were allowed to lapse.[184][185] Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its use of the name "Tiger". On May 16, 2005, a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's use did not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark.[186]

Mac OS X Public Beta

Main article: Mac OS X Public Beta

On September 13, 2000, Apple released a $29.95[187] "preview" version of Mac OS X, internally codenamed Kodiak, to gain feedback from users.

The "PB", as it was known, marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.[188]

Mac OS X 10.0 (Cheetah)

Main article: Mac OS X 10.0

On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X 10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah).[189] The initial version was slow,[190] incomplete,[191] and had very few applications available at launch, mostly from independent developers.[192] While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve.[191] Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment,[191] for attempts to overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent.[citation needed]

Mac OS X 10.1 (Puma)

Main article: Mac OS X 10.1

Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X 10.1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released. It featured increased performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10.1 as a free upgrade CD for 10.0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed version for people running Mac OS 9. It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems.[193] On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month.[194]

Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar

Main article: Mac OS X 10.2

On August 23, 2002,[195] Apple followed up with Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, the first release to use its code name as part of the branding.[196] It brought great raw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many powerful user-interface enhancements (over 150, according to Apple[197] ), including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATIRadeon or NvidiaGeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat.[198] The Happy Mac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a large grey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10.2.[199]

Mac OS X 10.3 Panther

Main article: Mac OS X Panther

Mac OS X v10.3 Panther was released on October 24, 2003. It significantly improved performance and incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast user switching, Exposé (Window manager), FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added video conferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability.[200] Support for some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued.[201]

Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger

Main article: Mac OS X Tiger

Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 new features.[202] As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with 256 MB and a built-in FireWire port.[99] Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services.[203] On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10.4.4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release lacking support for the Classic environment.[204]

Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard

Main article: Mac OS X Leopard

Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was released on October 26, 2007. It was called by Apple "the largest update of Mac OS X". It brought more than 300 new features.[205] Leopard supports both PowerPC- and Intel x86-based Macintosh computers; support for the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor required a minimum clock rate of 867 MHz, and at least 512 MB of RAM to be installed. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine, Spaces, Boot Camp pre-installed,[206] full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications), new features in Mail and iChat, and a number of new security features. Leopard is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. It was also the first BSD-based OS to receive UNIX 03 certification.[9][207] Leopard dropped support for the Classic Environment and all Classic applications.[208] It was the final version of Mac OS X to support the PowerPC architecture.[209]

Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard

Main article: Mac OS X Snow Leopard

Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was released on August 28, 2009. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X, Snow Leopard focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes were: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, a more responsive Finder rewritten in Cocoa, faster Time Machine backups, more reliable and user-friendly disk ejects, a more powerful version of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari web browser. Snow Leopard only supported machines with Intel CPUs, required at least 1 GB of RAM, and dropped default support for applications built for the PowerPC architecture (Rosetta could be installed as an additional component to retain support for PowerPC-only applications).[210]

Snow Leopard also featured new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM, improved support for multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch, and advanced GPU performance with OpenCL.[211]

The 10.6.6 update introduced support for the Mac App Store, Apple's digital distribution platform for macOS applications.[212]

OS X 10.7 Lion

Main article: OS X Lion

OS X 10.7 Lion was released on July 20, 2011. It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta, making it incompatible with PowerPC applications.[118]

Changes made to the GUI include auto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are used, and Mission Control which unifies Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, and full-screen applications within a single interface.[213] Apple also made changes to applications: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed, similar to iOS. Documents auto-save by default.[214]

OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion

Main article: OS X Mountain Lion

OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012.[174] Following the release of Lion the previous year, it was the first of the annual rather than two-yearly updates to OS X (and later macOS), which also closely aligned with the annual iOS operating system updates. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center, support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app). It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud.[215]Notification Center, which makes its debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS 5.0 and higher. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.[158]

Starting with Mountain Lion, Apple software updates (including the OS) are distributed via the App Store.[216] This updating mechanism replaced the Apple Software Update utility.[217]

A screenshot of OS X Mavericks

OS X 10.9 Mavericks

Main article: OS X Mavericks

OS X 10.9 Mavericks was released on October 22, 2013. It was a free upgrade to all users running Snow Leopard or later with a 64-bit Intel processor.[218] Its changes include the addition of the previously iOS-only Maps and iBooks applications, improvements to the Notification Center, enhancements to several applications, and many under-the-hood improvements.[219]

OS X 10.10 Yosemite

Main article: OS X Yosemite

OS X 10.10 Yosemite was released on October 16, 2014. It features a redesigned user interface similar to that of iOS 7, intended to feature a more minimal, text-based 'flat' design, with use of translucency effects and intensely saturated colors.[220] Apple's showcase new feature in Yosemite is Handoff, which enables users with iPhones running iOS 8.1 or later to answer phone calls, receive and send SMS messages, and complete unfinished iPhone emails on their Mac. As of OS X 10.10.3, Photos replaced iPhoto and Aperture.[221]

OS X 10.11 El Capitan

Main article: OS X El Capitan

OS X 10.11 El Capitan was released on September 30, 2015. Similar to Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as emphasizing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance".[222] Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection.

The Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also included in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012".[223] According to Apple, Metal accelerates system-level rendering by up to 50 percent, resulting in faster graphics performance for everyday apps. Metal also delivers up to 10 times faster draw call performance for more fluid experience in games and pro apps.[224]

macOS 10.12 Sierra

Main article: macOS Sierra

macOS 10.12 Sierra was released to the public on September 20, 2016. New features include the addition of Siri, Optimized Storage, and updates to Photos, Messages, and iTunes.[225][226]

macOS 10.13 High Sierra

Main article: macOS High Sierra

macOS 10.13 High Sierra was released to the public on September 25, 2017.[227] Like OS X El Capitan and OS X Mountain Lion, High Sierra is a refinement-based update having very few new features visible to the user, including updates to Safari, Photos, and Mail, among other changes.[228]

The major change under the hood is the switch to the Apple File System, optimized for the solid-state storage used in most new Mac computers.[229]

macOS 10.14 Mojave

Main article: macOS Mojave

macOS 10.14 Mojave was released on September 24, 2018.[52] The update introduced a system-wide dark mode and several new apps lifted from iOS, such as Apple News. It was the first version to require a GPU that supports Metal. Mojave also changed the system software update mechanism from the App Store (where it had been since OS X Mountain Lion) to a new panel in System Preferences. App updates remain in the App Store.

macOS 10.15 Catalina

Main article: macOS Catalina

macOS 10.15 Catalina was released on October 7, 2019.[230] Updates included enhanced voice control, and bundled apps for music, video, and podcasts that together replace the functions of iTunes, and the ability to use an iPad as an external monitor. Catalina officially dropped support for 32-bit applications.[231]

macOS 11 Big Sur

Main article: macOS Big Sur

macOS Big Sur was announced during the WWDC keynote speech on June 22, 2020,[232] and it was made available to the general public on November 12, 2020. This is the first time the major version number of the operating system has been incremented since the Mac OS X Public Beta in 2000. It brings ARM support,[233] new icons, and aesthetic user interface changes to the system.[234]

macOS 12 Monterey

Main article: macOS Monterey

macOS Monterey was announced during the WWDC keynote speech on June 7, 2021, slated to be released in the fall of 2021, introducing Universal Control (which allows input devices to be used with multiple devices simultaneously), Focus (which allows selectively limiting notifications and alerts depending on user-defined user/work modes), Shortcuts (a task automation framework previously available only on iOS and expected to replace Automator), a redesigned Safari Web browser, and updates and improvements to FaceTime.[235]

Reception

Usage share

See also: Usage share of operating systems

As of July 2016, macOS is the second-most-active general-purpose desktop client operating system used on the World Wide Web following Microsoft Windows, with a 4.90% usage share according to statistics compiled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is the second-most widely used desktop operating system (for web browsing), after Windows, and is estimated at approximately five times the usage of Linux (which has 1.01%). Usage share generally continues to shift away from the desktop and toward mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android.[236]

Malware and spyware

In its earlier years, Mac OS X enjoyed a near-absence of the types of malware and spyware that have affected Microsoft Windows users.[237][238][239] macOS has a smaller usage share compared to Windows.[240]Worms, as well as potential vulnerabilities, were noted in 2006, which led some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to issue warnings that Apple's Mac OS X is not immune to malware.[241] Increasing market share coincided with additional reports of a variety of attacks.[242] In early 2011, Mac OS X experienced a large increase in malware attacks,[243] and malware such as Mac Defender, MacProtector, and MacGuard was seen as an increasing problem for Mac users. At first, the malware installer required the user to enter the administrative password, but later versions installed without user input.[244] Initially, Apple support staff were instructed not to assist in the removal of the malware or admit the existence of the malware issue, but as the malware spread, a support document was issued. Apple announced an OS X update to fix the problem. An estimated 100,000 users were affected.[245][246] Apple releases security updates for macOS regularly,[247] as well as signature files containing malware signatures for Xprotect, an anti-malware feature part of File Quarantine present since Mac OS X Snow Leopard.[248]

Promotion

As a device company, Apple has mostly promoted macOS to sell Macs, with promotion of macOS updates focused on existing users, promotion at Apple Store and other retail partners, or through events for developers. In larger scale advertising campaigns, Apple specifically promoted macOS as better for handling media and other home-user applications, and comparing Mac OS X (especially versions Tiger and Leopard) with the heavy criticism Microsoft received for the long-awaited Windows Vista operating system.[249][250]

See also

References

  1. ^"What Is the I/O Kit?". IOKit Fundamentals.
  2. ^"What's New in Swift". Apple Developer (Video). June 14, 2016. At 2:40. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  3. ^Clover, Juli (September 13, 2021). "Apple Releases macOS Big Sur 11.6 With Security Fixes". MacRumors. Retrieved September 13, 2021.
  4. ^"macOS Big Sur 11.6 (20G165) - Releases - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Apple Inc. September 13, 2021. Retrieved September 13, 2021.
  5. ^Clover, Juli (October 13, 2021). "Apple Seeds Tenth Beta of macOS Monterey to Developers". MacRumors. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  6. ^"macOS Monterey beta 10 (21A5552a) - Releases - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Apple Inc. October 13, 2021. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  7. ^ ab"macOS – How to Upgrade – Apple". Apple. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  8. ^Apple Events – WWDC Keynote June 2016. Event occurs at 36:28. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017.YouTube mirror.
  9. ^ ab"Mac OS X Version 10.5 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MacOS

Now discussing:

catalina

Apple unveiled the new name of its MacOS Monday at its annual Worldwide Developers Conference held at the McEnery Convention Center in San Jose, California. According to Craig Federighi, senior vice president of software engineering, the new OS is called Catalina.

Catalina takes a turn from Apple's last few years of naming patterns. MacOS Mojave began a California geographical feature streak and ended what Apple's senior vice president of software engineering called a "four-year mountain bender." Before the mountain names, Apple was fond of big cats.

Here's the last 10 MacOS names:

  • MacOS 10.14: Mojave- 2018

  • MacOS 10.13: High Sierra- 2017

  • MacOS 10.12: Sierra- 2016

  • OS X 10.11: El Capitan- 2015

  • OS X 10.10: Yosemite-2014

  • OS X 10.9 Mavericks-2013

  • OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion- 2012

  • OS X 10.7 Lion- 2011

  • OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard- 2009

  • OS X 10.5 Leopard- 2007

In Catalina, users will see that Apple is replacing iTunes with its popular entertainment apps — Apple Music, Apple Podcasts and the Apple TV app. The new OS will also include the new Sidecar and security features. MacOS Catalina also gets security improvements to keep hackers at bay.

"Users will appreciate how they can expand their workspace with Sidecar, enabling new ways of interacting with Mac apps using iPad and Apple Pencil. And with new developer technologies, users will see more great third-party apps arrive on the Mac this fall," Federighi said in a release.  

Catalina's beta releases Monday. The public seed goes live in July and it will be available to everyone in the fall.

Apple has more different operating systems than ever before. There's iOS for iPhones and iPads, MacOS  for its computers, tvOS for Apple TV and watchOS for the Apple Watch. Then there's Apple Pay, iTunes, Apple Music, the App Store, iCloud, HomeKit and various other apps and services. It's critical that Apple make a strong impression at WWDC with the next versions of its software.

Shara Tibken contributed to this report. Follow our WWDC liveblog, and see all of today's Apple news.

Originally published June 3, 11:45 a.m. PT.
Updates, 12 p.m.: Adds background on previous MacOS; 12:44 p.m.: Includes more details; June 8: Adds more details.

Sours: https://www.cnet.com/tech/services-and-software/meet-catalina-apples-newest-macos/


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