Seattle fire code

Seattle fire code DEFAULT

Archives West Finding Aid

This series contains index cards recording fire code violations by business owners, employees, and citizens. Information given includes date of offense, name, violation, resulting fine and/or judgment. Offenses ranged from obstructing hallways, improper storage of combustibles, "unflameproofed circus tents," illegal sale of fireworks and fire exit doors nailed shut. Smoking in a "no smoking" area also resulted in fines for many longshoremen, fisherman and other individuals working on or near Seattle docks. During the s and s, many theatre owners were fined for allowing people to congregate in the lobby, aisles or for someone smoking on stage.

Use of the CollectionReturn to Top

Preferred Citation

[Item and date],Seattle Fire Marshal Fire Code Violation Cards, Record Series Box [number], Folder [number]. Seattle Municipal Archives.

Administrative InformationReturn to Top


Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

Subject Terms

  • Building inspection--Washington (State)--Seattle
  • Fire prevention--Washington (State)--Seattle

Corporate Names

  • Seattle (Wash.). Fire Dept.
  • Seattle (Wash.). Fire Marshal

Geographical Names

Sours: http://archiveswest.orbiscascade.org/ark://xv

Chapter
FIRE CODE

Sections:

    Adoption.

    Applicability of Port of Seattle Fire Codes.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 1, Scope and Administration.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 2, Definitions.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 3, General Requirements.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 4, Emergency Planning and Preparedness.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 5, Fire Service Features.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 6, Building Services and Systems.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 7, Fire and Smoke Prevention Features.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 9, Fire Protection Systems.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 11, Fire Safety Requirements for Existing Buildings.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 80, Reference Standards.

    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Appendix B, Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings.

    Automatic location identifier – Enhanced

Adoption.

The International Fire Code with Appendix B, Edition, as published by the International Code Council, as amended in Chapter A WAC, together with amendments, additions, and deletions adopted by reference, and together with SeaTac modifications, is adopted as the City of SeaTac Fire Code, and referred to as “this code” in this chapter. At least one (1) copy of the adopted edition of the International Fire Code as published by the International Code Council shall be on file in the office of the Building Official on behalf of the City Clerk. (Ord. § 2; Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Applicability of Port of Seattle Fire Codes.

A. With the exception of SMC , should the Port of Seattle Fire Codes, as set forth in the Rules for Airport Construction, conflict with this chapter, that conflict shall be resolved in favor of the Port of Seattle Fire Codes.

B. Subsection (A) of this section only applies for parcels identified as “Inside AAA” or “Addition” on Appendix 3A – Airport Activity Area Map, pursuant to the Interlocal Agreement between the City and the Port of Seattle (dated December 20, , and effective February 17, ). (Ord. § 1 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 1, Scope and Administration.

The following local amendments to Chapter 1 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Scope and Administration,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Retained authority – Additional conditions. The fire code official retains the authority to impose additional conditions where the official determines it necessary to mitigate identified fire protection impacts and problematic fire protection systems. These conditions may include, by way of example and without limitation, increased setbacks, use of fire retardant materials, installation and/or modification of standpipes, fire sprinkler and fire alarm systems.

B. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Term. Operational permits issued in accordance with this code shall be valid for a month period and are renewable at the end of that month term.

C. Subsection of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Required operational permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue operational permits for the operations set forth in Sections through

D. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Commercial Kitchen. An operational permit is required for all commercial kitchens with type I hood systems.

E. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Emergency and standby power systems. An operational permit is required for code required emergency or standby power systems identified in NFPA

F. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Fire Protection System Contractor. An operational permit is required for all companies performing any installation, inspection, service, maintenance, or repair of any fire protection system.

G. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Commercial Kitchen Hood and Duct Systems Contractor. An operational permit is required for all companies performing any inspection or cleaning of commercial kitchen hood and duct systems.

H. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Powder Actuated Fasteners. For parcels zoned Aviation Operations (“AVO”) or Aviation Commercial (“AVC”), an operational permit is required for any activities utilizing powder actuated fasteners.

I. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Food Trucks. For parcels zoned Aviation Operations (“AVO”) or Aviation Commercial (“AVC”), an operational permit is required for any activities utilizing food trucks.

J. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Use of Aircraft Hangars or Warehouses for an event. For parcels zoned Aviation Operations (“AVO”) or Aviation Commercial (“AVC”), an operational permit is required for any activities utilizing an aircraft hangar or warehouse for an event with more than people.

K. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Fuel Storage Tanks. For parcels zoned Aviation Operations (“AVO”) or Aviation Commercial (“AVC”), an operational permit is required for any activities utilizing fuel storage tanks.

L. Subsection of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Required construction permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue construction permits for work set forth in Sections through

M. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Emergency and standby power systems. A construction permit is required for the installation of a code required emergency or standby power systems identified in NFPA

N. Subsection of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Work commencing before permit issuance. When work is started or proceeded prior to obtaining approval or required permits, the ordinary fees shall be doubled. The payment of such double fee shall not relieve any persons from fully complying with the requirement of this code in the execution of the work nor from any other penalties prescribed by this code.

O. Section of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Appeals. The Hearing Examiner shall constitute the board of appeals for all matters concerning the application of the technical codes. Appeals to the hearing examiner shall be made pursuant to Chapter SMC.

P. Subsection of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Violation Penalties. Persons who shall violate a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, repair or do work in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the fire code official, or of a permit or certificate used under provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than one thousand (1,) dollars or by imprisonment of not more than 90 days, or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation continues after due notice has been served shall be deemed a separate offense.

Q. Subsection of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such as that person is directed, by the City, to perform or remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less than one hundred ($) dollars or more than double the amount.

(Ord. § 2; Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 2, Definitions.

The following local amendment to Chapter 2 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Definitions,” is hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. The following definitions are added to Section of the International Fire Code to read as follows:

OUTDOOR STORAGE. The storage of materials on-site which are not in transit.

PROBLEMATIC FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. A fire protection system that generates repeated preventable alarms.

(Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 3, General Requirements.

The following local amendments to Chapter 3 of the International Fire Code, entitled “General Requirements,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Sky lanterns. The use of sky lanterns is prohibited.

(Ord. § 2; Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 4, Emergency Planning and Preparedness.

This section is reserved. (Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 5, Fire Service Features.

The following local amendments to Chapter 5 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire Service Features,” are adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Section of the International Fire Code is adopted.

B. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Dimensions. The following minimum dimensions shall apply for fire apparatus access roads:

1. Fire apparatus access roads shall have an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet, except for approved security gates in accordance with section , and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 13 feet 6 inches.

2. All fire apparatus access road routes shall be approved.

C. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Surface. Facilities, buildings, or portions of buildings constructed shall be accessible to fire department apparatus by way of an approved fire apparatus access road with asphalt or concrete capable of supporting the imposed load of fire apparatus weighing at least 30 tons in accordance with the City Road Standards, as set forth in SMC

D. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in excess of feet in length shall be provided with an approved turnaround.

E. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the bridge or elevated surface shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with specifications established by the fire code official and the public works director, or their designees; at a minimum, however, the bridge or elevated surface shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry 30 or more ton fire apparatus, the total imposed load to be determined by the fire code official. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to bridges when required by the fire code official. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces which are not designed for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or both shall be installed and maintained when required by the fire code official.

F. Subsection of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Grade. Fire apparatus access roads shall not exceed 15 percent longitudinally and/or 6 percent laterally in grade. Approach and departure angle for fire access shall be as determined by the fire code official.

G. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Access road width with a hydrant. Where a fire hydrant is located on a fire apparatus access road, for 20 feet on either side of the operating nut the minimum road width shall be 26 feet and may be marked as a fire lane per Section

H. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Marking. Fire apparatus access roads shall be marked whenever necessary to maintain the unobstructed minimum required width of roadways. Subject to the fire code official’s prior written approval, marked fire apparatus access roads, or fire lanes, may be established or relocated at the time of plan review, pre-construction site inspection, and/or post construction site inspection as well as any time during the life of the occupancy. Only those fire apparatus access roads established by the fire code official can utilize red marking paint and the term fire lane. Fire lanes shall be marked as directed by the fire code official with one or more of the following types of marking in accordance with the City of SeaTac Design and Construction Standards:

Type 1. Type 1 marking shall be installed to identify fire lanes on hammerhead turnarounds, commercial and multi-family developments or as directed by the fire code official. The following shall apply to Type 1 marking:

1. Curbs shall be identifiable by red traffic paint with a 6 inch wide stripe on the top and front, extending the length of the designated fire lane.

2. Rolled curbs shall be identified by red traffic paint with a 6 inch wide stripe on the upper most portion of the curb, extending the length of the designated fire lane.

3. Lanes without curbs shall be identified by red traffic paint with a 6 inch wide stripe on the pavement, extending the length of the designated fire lane.

4. The words “NO PARKING – FIRE LANE” shall be in 3 inch stroke white letters 18 inches in height, and placed 8 inches measured perpendicular from the red paint stripe on the pavement. Locations and intervals will be designated by the fire code official; marking will not exceed 50 feet apart. In most cases, both sides of the access road shall be marked. Where long drives are to be marked, the repetition shall alternate sides of the drive.

Type 2. Type 2 marking shall be installed to identify fire lanes in one- and two-family dwelling developments, or as directed by the fire code official. The following shall apply to Type 2 marking:

1. Type 2 marking requires metal signs stating “NO PARKING – FIRE LANE” to be installed at intervals or locations designated by the fire code official; signage will not exceed feet apart.

2. The signs shall measure 12 inches in width and 18 inches in height and have red letters on a white background. Bottom of sign shall be a minimum of 7 feet from the curb. Signs shall be nominally parallel to the road, facing the direction of travel.

3. The sign shall be installed on an approved metal post.

Exception: On construction sites, approved portable or temporary sign posts and bases may be used.

4. Where fire lanes are adjacent to buildings or structures and when approved or directed by the fire code official, the signs may be placed on the face of the building or structure.

Type 3. Type 3 marking shall be installed to address situations where neither Type 1 or 2 marking are effective or as directed by the fire code official.

1. Specific areas designated by the fire code official shall be marked with diagonal striping across the width of the fire lane. Diagonal marking shall be used in conjunction with painted curbs and/or edge striping and shall run at an angle of 30 to 60 degrees from one side to the other. These diagonal lines shall be in red traffic paint, parallel with each other, at least 6 inches in width, and 24 inches apart. Lettering shall occur as with Type 1 marking.

I. Subsection is added to read as follows:

Establishment of fire lanes. Fire lanes in conformance with this code shall be established by the Fire Chief or his/her authorized designee, and shall be in accordance with through

Obstruction of fire lanes prohibited. The obstruction of a designated fire lane by a parked vehicle or any other object is prohibited and shall constitute a traffic hazard as defined in State law and an immediate hazard to life and property.

Existing fire lane signs and markings. The following signs and markings shall be provided:

1. Signs (minimum nine-inch by inch) may be allowed to remain until there is a need for replacement and at that time the sign shall meet the requirements of section

2. Markings may be allowed to remain until there is a need for repainting and at that time the provisions outlined in shall be complied with.

Maintenance. Fire lane markings shall be maintained at the expense of the property owner(s) as often as needed to clearly identify the designated area as being a fire lane.

Towing notification. At each entrance to property where fire lanes have been designated, signs shall be posted in a clearly conspicuous location and shall clearly state that vehicles parked in fire lanes may be impounded, and the name, telephone number, and address of the towing firm where the vehicle may be redeemed.

Responsible property owner. The owner, manager, or person in charge of any property upon which designated fire lanes have been established shall prevent the parking of vehicles or placement of other obstructions in such fire lanes.

Violation – Penalty. Any person who fails to mark or maintain the marking of a designated fire lane as prescribed herein, or who obstructs or allows the obstruction of a designated fire lane, other than the parking of a vehicle, shall be deemed to have committed a Class 2 civil infraction. The penalty for violation of this section shall be a maximum monetary penalty of one hundred twenty-five dollars ($), not including statutory assessments.

Violation – Civil penalty. In addition to, or as an alternate to, the penalties specified above, the City is authorized to enforce all provisions of this chapter, specifically including civil penalties, pursuant to Chapter SMC.

Impoundment. Any vehicle or object obstructing a designated fire lane is declared a traffic hazard and may be abated without prior notification to its owner by impoundment pursuant to the applicable State law. The owner or operator shall be responsible for all towing and impound charges.

J. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Commercial and Industrial Developments. The fire apparatus access roads serving commercial and industrial developments shall be in accordance with Sections through

Buildings exceeding three stories or 30 feet in height. Buildings or facilities exceeding 30 feet or three stories in height shall have at least two means of fire apparatus access for each structure.

Buildings exceeding 62, square feet in area. Buildings or facilities having a gross building area of more than 62, square feet shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

Exception: Projects having a gross building area of up to , square feet that have a single approved fire apparatus access road when all buildings are equipped throughout with approved automatic sprinkler systems.

Remoteness. Where two access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the property or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses or as approved by the fire code official and the fire chief.

K. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Aerial fire apparatus roads. The fire apparatus access roads that accommodate aerial fire apparatus shall be in accordance with Sections through

Where required. Buildings or portions of buildings or facilities exceeding 30 feet in height above the lowest level of fire department access shall be provided with approved fire apparatus access roads that are capable of accommodating fire department aerial apparatus.

Width. Fire apparatus access roads shall have a minimum unobstructed width of 26 feet in the immediate vicinity of any building or portion of building more than 30 feet in height.

Proximity to building. At least one of the required access routes meeting this condition shall be positioned parallel to one entire side of the building. The location of the parallel access route shall be approved.

Obstructions. Overhead utility and power lines shall not be located over the aerial fire apparatus access roads or between the aerial apparatus access road and the building. Other obstructions shall be permitted to be placed with the approval of the fire code official.

L. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Multi-family residential developments. The fire apparatus access roads serving multi-family residential developments shall be in accordance with Sections through

Projects having more than dwelling units. Multi-family residential projects having more than dwelling units shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

Exception: Projects having up to dwelling units may have a single approved fire apparatus access road when all buildings, including nonresidential occupancies, are equipped throughout with approved automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section or

Projects having more than dwelling units. Multi-family residential projects having more than dwelling units shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads regardless of whether they are equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

Remoteness. Where two access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the property or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses or as approved by the fire code official and fire chief.

M. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

One- and Two-family residential developments with more than 30 dwelling units. The fire apparatus access roads serving one and two-family residential developments with more than 30 dwelling units shall be in accordance with Sections and

Projects having more than 30 dwelling units. Developments of one- or two-family dwellings where the number of dwelling units exceed 30 shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

Exceptions:

1. Where there are more than 30 dwelling units on a single public or private fire apparatus access road and all dwelling units are equipped throughout with approved automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section , , or of the International Fire Code, access from two directions shall not be required.

2. The number of dwelling units on a single fire apparatus access road shall not be increased unless fire apparatus

access roads will, within a reasonable time, connect with future development, as determined by the fire code official.

Remoteness. Where two access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the property or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses or as approved by the fire code official and fire chief.

N.  A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Underground structures. Installation of underground structures under or within 10 feet of fire apparatus access roads shall be designed using approved criteria. The criteria shall accommodate for the loading of fire department aerial apparatus unless otherwise approved.

O. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standard shall be maintained on the premises for three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of each test, inspection, or maintenance of the system.

P.  Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts shall be designed and installed in accordance with the local water purveyor’s design and construction standards.

Q.  Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Fire hydrant. Fire hydrants shall be designed and installed in accordance with the local water purveyor’s design and construction standards.

R. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Backflow prevention. All private fire systems shall be isolated by an approved method from the local water purveyor.

S. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Capacity for residential areas. All hydrants installed in single family residential areas shall be capable of delivering 1, gpm fire flow over and above average maximum demands at the farthest point of the installation.

T. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Spacing. The spacing of hydrants shall be in accordance with Sections through

Single family. The maximum fire hydrant spacing serving single family residential areas shall be feet.

Commercial, industrial and multi-family. The maximum fire hydrant spacing serving commercial, industrial, multi-family or other areas shall be feet.

Medians. Where streets are provided with median dividers which cannot be crossed by firefighters pulling hose lines hydrants shall be provided on each side of the street and be arranged on an alternating basis.

Arterials. Where arterial streets are provided with four or more traffic lanes hydrants shall be provided on each side of the street and be arranged on an alternating basis.

Transportation. Where new water mains are extended along streets where hydrants are not needed for protection of structures or similar fire problems, fire hydrants shall be provided at a spacing not to exceed 1, feet to provide for transportation hazards.

U. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Required hydrants. The number of hydrants required for a property shall be based on the calculated fire flow. The first hydrant will be calculated for up to 1, gpm. An additional hydrant is required for every 1, gpm, or fraction thereof. The required hydrants shall be within feet of the property on a fire apparatus road, as measured by an approved method.

V. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Notification. The owner of property on which private hydrants are located and the public agencies that own or control public hydrants must provide the fire code official with the following written service notifications in accordance with and

In-service notification. The fire code official shall be notified when any newly installed hydrant is placed into service.

Out-of-service notifications. Where any hydrant is out of service or has not yet been placed in service, the hydrant shall be identified as being out of service and shall be appropriately marked as out of service, by a method approved by the fire code official.

W. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Water main standards. The installation of water mains shall be in accordance with and

Minimum pipe size. All water mains serving fire hydrants shall be eight (8) inches in diameter for dead-end mains and six (6) inches inside diameter for circulating mains.

Exception: Hydrant leads less than fifty (50) feet in length may be six (6) inches in diameter.

Adopted standards. All water mains shall meet applicable engineering and health standards adopted by the State of Washington or the water purveyor.

X. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Water purveyor authority. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit water purveyors from imposing more stringent requirements for the construction of water mains and fire hydrants.

Y. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

General. Where required by other sections of the code and in all buildings classified as high-rise or those buildings used as an airport terminal, a fire command center for fire department operations shall be provided and shall comply with Sections through

Z. Section of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Emergency responder radio coverage in new buildings. Approved radio coverage for emergency responders shall be provided within buildings meeting any of the following conditions:

1. High rise buildings;

2. The total building area is 50, square feet or more;

3. The total basement area is 10, square feet or more; or

4. There are floors used for human occupancy more than 30 feet below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

5. Buildings or structures where the Fire or Police Chief determines that in-building radio coverage is critical because of its unique design, location, use or occupancy.

The radio coverage system shall be installed in accordance with Sections through of this code and with the provisions of NFPA This section shall not require improvement of the existing public safety communication systems.

Point of Information

When determining if the minimum signal strength referenced exists at a subject building, the signal strength shall be measured at any point on the exterior of the building up to the highest point on the roof.

Exceptions:

1. Buildings and areas of buildings that have minimum radio coverage signal strength levels of the King County Regional MHz Radio System within the building in accordance with Section without the use of a radio coverage system.

2. In facilities where emergency responder radio coverage is required and such systems, components or equipment required could have a negative impact on the normal operations of that facility, the fire code official shall have the authority to accept an automatically activated emergency responder radio coverage system.

3. One- and two-family dwellings and townhouses.

Emergency responder radio coverage in existing buildings. Existing buildings shall be provided with approved radio coverage for emergency responders as required in Chapter

Permit required. A construction permit for the installation of or modification to emergency responder radio coverage systems and related equipment is required as specified in Section Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.

Point of Information

Prior coordination and approval from the Public Safety Radio System Operator is required before installation of an Emergency Responder Radio System. Until , such approval is required from EPSCA, King County, Seattle or ValleyCom depending on the location of the installation. In PSERN will be the single operator of a county wide system.

In order to be forward compatible, designers and contractors should be aware of PSERN’s requirements for Distributed Antenna Systems which can be found via https://psern.org/requirements/

Technical requirements. Systems, components and equipment required to provide the emergency responder radio coverage system shall comply with Sections through

Emergency responder communication enhancement system signal strength. The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder communications enhancement system coverage when signal strength measurements in 95 percent of all areas on each floor of the building meet the signal strength requirements in Sections through

Exception: Critical areas, such as the fire command center(s), the fire pump room(s), interior exit stairways, exit passageways, elevator lobbies, standpipe cabinets, sprinkler sectional valve locations, and other areas required by the fire code official, shall be provided with 99 percent floor area radio coverage.

Minimum signal strength into the building. The minimum inbound signal strength shall be sufficient to provide usable voice communications throughout the coverage area as specified by the fire code official. The inbound signal level shall be a minimum of dBm in 95% of the coverage area and 99% in critical areas and sufficient to provide not less than a Delivered Audio Quality (DAQ) of or an equivalent Signal-to-Interference-Plus-Noise Ratio (SINR) applicable to the technology for either analog or digital signals.

Minimum signal strength out of the building. The minimum outbound signal strength shall be sufficient to provide usable voice communications throughout the coverage area as specified by the fire code official. The outbound signal level shall be sufficient to provide not less than a DAQ of or an equivalent SINR applicable to the technology for either analog or digital signals. A minimum signal strength of dBm shall be received by the King County Regional MHz Radio System when transmitted from within the building.

System performance. Signal strength shall be sufficient to meet the requirements of the applications being utilized by public safety for emergency operations through the coverage area as specified by the radio system manager in Section

System design. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be designed in accordance with Sections through and NFPA

Amplification systems and components. Buildings and structures that cannot support the required level of radio coverage shall be equipped with systems and components to enhance the public safety radio signals and achieve the required level of radio coverage specified in Sections through Public safety communications enhancement systems utilizing radio-frequency-emitting devices and cabling shall be allowed by the Public Safety Radio System Operator. Prior to installation, all RF-emitting devices shall have the certification of the radio licensing authority and be suitable for public safety use.

Technical criteria. The Public Safety Radio System Operator shall provide the various frequencies required, the location of radio sites, the effective radiated power of radio sites, the maximum propagation delay in microseconds, the applications being used and other supporting technical information necessary for system design upon request by the building owner or owner’s representative.

Power supply sources. Emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be provided with dedicated standby batteries or provided with 2-hour standby batteries and connected to the facility generator power system in accordance with Section The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system at percent system capacity for a duration of not less than 12 hours.

Signal booster requirements. If used, signal boosters shall meet the following requirements:

1. All signal booster components shall be contained in a National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) 4, IPtype waterproof cabinet or equivalent.

Exception: Listed battery systems that are contained in integrated battery cabinets.

2. Battery systems used for the emergency power source shall be contained in a NEMA 3R or higher-rated cabinet, IPtype waterproof cabinet or equivalent.

3. Equipment shall have FCC or other radio licensing authority certification and be suitable for public safety use prior to installation.

4. Where a donor antenna exists, isolation shall be maintained between the donor antenna and all inside antennas to not less than 20dB greater than the system gain under all operating conditions.

5. Bi-Directional Amplifiers (BDAs) used in emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be fitted with anti-oscillation circuitry and per-channel AGC.

6. The installation of amplification systems or systems that operate on or provide the means to cause interference on any emergency responder radio coverage networks shall be coordinated and approved by the Public Safety Radio System Operator.

7. Unless otherwise approved by the Public Safety Radio System Operator, only channelized signal boosters shall be permitted.

Exception: Broadband BDA’s may be utilized when specifically authorized in writing by the Public Safety Radio System Operator.

Point of Information

BDA’s must also comply with PSERN’s (www.psern.org/requirements) detailed requirements, which include channelized, minimum of 28 channels, supporting analog, P25 Phase I (FDMA), and P25 Phase II (TDMA).

System monitoring. The emergency responder radio enhancement system shall include automatic supervisory and trouble signals that are monitored by a supervisory service and are annunciated by the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA The following conditions shall be separately annunciated by the fire alarm system, or, if the status of each of the following conditions is individually displayed on a dedicated panel on the radio enhancement system, a single automatic supervisory signal may be annunciated on the fire alarm system indicating deficiencies of the radio enhancement system:

1. Loss of normal AC power supply.

2. System battery charger(s) failure.

3. Malfunction of the donor antenna(s).

4. Failure of active RF-emitting device(s).

5. Low-battery capacity at percent reduction of operating capacity.

6. Active system component malfunction.

7. Malfunction of the communications link between the fire alarm system and the emergency responder radio enhancement system.

Additional frequencies and change of frequencies. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be capable of modification or expansion in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or other radio licensing authority, or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC or other radio licensing authority.

Design documents. The fire code official shall have the authority to require “as-built” design documents and specifications for emergency responder communications coverage systems. The documents shall be in a format acceptable to the fire code official.

Radio communication antenna density. Systems shall be engineered to minimize the near-far effect. Radio enhancement system designs shall include sufficient antenna density to address reduced gain conditions.

Exceptions:

1. Class A narrow band signal booster devices with independent AGC/ALC circuits per channel.

2. Systems where all portable devices within the same band use active power control

Installation requirements. The installation of the public safety radio coverage system shall be in accordance with NFPA and Sections through

Approval prior to installation. Amplification systems capable of operating on frequencies licensed to any public safety agency by the FCC or other radio licensing authority shall not be installed without prior coordination and approval of the Public Safety Radio System Operator.

Minimum qualifications of personnel. The minimum qualifications of the system designer and lead installation personnel shall include both of the following:

1. A valid FCC-issued general radio telephone operators license.

2. Certification of in-building system training issued by an approved organization or approved school, or a certificate issued by the manufacturer of the equipment being installed.

Acceptance test procedure. Where an emergency responder radio coverage system is required, and upon completion of installation, the building owner shall have the radio system tested to verify that two-way coverage on each floor of the building is in accordance with Section The test procedure shall be conducted as follows:

1. Each floor of the building shall be divided into a grid of 20 approximately equal test areas, with a maximum test area size of 6, square feet. Where the floor area exceeds , square feet, the floor shall be divided into as many approximately equal test areas as needed, such that no test area exceeds the maximum square footage allowed for a test area.

2. Coverage testing of signal strength shall be conducted using a calibrated spectrum analyzer for each of the test grids. A diagram of this testing shall be created for each floor where coverage is provided, indicating the testing grid used for the test in Section (1), and including signal strengths and frequencies for each test area. Indicate all critical areas.

3. Functional talk-back testing shall be conducted using two calibrated portable radios of the latest brand and model used by the agency’s radio communications system or other equipment approved by the fire code official. Testing shall use Digital Audible Quality (DAQ) metrics, where a passing result is a DAQ of 3 or higher. Communications between handsets shall be tested and recorded in the grid square diagram required by section (2): each grid square on each floor; between each critical area and a radio outside the building; between each critical area and the fire command center or fire alarm control panel; between each landing in each stairwell and the fire command center or fire alarm control panel.

4. Failure of more than 5% of the test areas on any floor shall result in failure of the test.

Exception: Critical areas shall be provided with 99 percent floor area coverage.

5. In the event that two of the test areas fail the test, in order to be more statistically accurate, the floor shall be permitted to be divided into 40 equal test areas. Failure of not more than two nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test. If the system fails the area test, the system shall be altered to meet the percent coverage requirement.

6. A test location approximately in the center of each test area shall be selected for the test, with the radio enabled to verify two-way communications to and from the outside of the building through the public agency’s radio communications system. Once the test location has been selected, that location shall represent the entire test area. Failure in the selected test location shall be considered to be a failure of that test area. Additional test locations shall not be permitted.

7. The gain values of all amplifiers shall be measured, and the test measurement results shall be kept on file with the building owner so that the measurements can be verified during annual tests. In the event that the measurement results become lost, the building owner shall be required to rerun the acceptance test to reestablish the gain values.

8. As part of the installation, a spectrum analyzer or other suitable test equipment shall be utilized to ensure spurious oscillations are not being generated by the subject signal booster. This test shall be conducted at the time of installation and at subsequent annual inspections.

9. Systems incorporating Class B signal booster devices or Class B broadband fiber remote devices shall be tested using two portable radios simultaneously conducting subjective voice quality checks. One portable radio shall be positioned not greater than 10 feet ( mm) from the indoor antenna. The second portable radio shall be positioned at a distance that represents the farthest distance from any indoor antenna. With both portable radios simultaneously keyed up on different frequencies within the same band, subjective audio testing shall be conducted and comply with DAQ levels as specified in Sections and

 Documentation maintained on premises. At the conclusion of the testing, and prior to issuance of the building Certificate of Occupancy, the building owner or owner’s representative shall place a copy of the following records in the DAS enclosure or the building engineer’s office. The records shall be available to the fire code official and maintained by the building owner for the life of the system:

a. A certification letter stating that the emergency responder radio coverage system has been installed and tested in accordance with this code, and that the system is complete and fully functional.

b. The grid square diagram created as part of testing in Sections (2) and (3).

c. Data sheets and/or manufacturer specifications for the emergency responder radio coverage system equipment; back up battery; and charging system (if utilized).

d. A diagram showing device locations and wiring schematic.

e. A copy of the electrical permit.

 Acceptance test reporting to fire code official. At the conclusion of the testing, and prior to issuance of the building Certificate of Occupancy, the building owner or owner’s representative shall submit copies of the acceptance test in a form and manner determined by the fire code official.

FCC compliance. The emergency responder radio coverage system installation and components shall comply with all applicable federal regulations including, but not limited to, FCC 47 CFR Part

Mounting of the donor antenna(s). To maintain proper alignment with the system designed donor site, donor antennas shall be permanently affixed on the highest possible position on the building or where approved by the fire code official. A clearly visible sign shall be placed near the antenna stating, “movement or repositioning of this antenna is prohibited without approval from the fire code official.” The antenna installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements in the International Building Code for weather protection of the building envelope.

Wiring. The backbone, antenna distribution, radiating, or any fiber-optic cables shall be rated as plenum cables. The backbone cables shall be connected to the antenna distribution, radiating, or copper cables using hybrid coupler devices of a value determined by the overall design. Backbone cables shall be routed through an enclosure that matches the building’s required fire-resistance rating for shafts or interior exit stairways. The connection between the backbone cable and the antenna cables shall be made within an enclosure that matches the building’s fire-resistance rating for shafts or interior exit stairways, and passage of the antenna distribution cable in and out of the enclosure shall be protected as a penetration per the International Building Code.

Identification Signs. Emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be identified by an approved sign located on or near the Fire Alarm Control Panel or other approved location stating “This building is equipped with an Emergency Responder Radio Coverage System. Control Equipment located in room___”.

A sign stating “Emergency Responder Radio Coverage System Equipment” shall be placed on or adjacent to the door of the room containing the main system components.

Port of Seattle Pathway Survivability Alternatives. In lieu of the prescriptive requirements of NFPA 72 and , the Port of Seattle Fire Department will allow the following alternatives for pathway survivability:

1. All backbone pathways (riser cables, donor antenna cables, BDA cables) between signal boosters, donor antennae and secondary power supplies and between head end and remote units for fiber-based systems shall be protected by a 2-hour fire rated enclosure.

2. All signal booster components and battery backup equipment, located in rooms with fire sprinklers, shall be installed in NEMA-4 type waterproof cabinets.

3. The connection between the riser and feeder coaxial cables shall be made within 2-hour rated enclosure, and passage of the feeder cable in and out of the 2-hour rated enclosure shall be fire stopped to a 2-hour rating.

4. Feeder cables that are installed above ceilings in buildings that are protected with an automatic fire sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 shall not require additional physical protection. Feeder cables in these installations shall be plenum rated.

5. Feeder cables that are installed in areas without ceilings shall require additional physical protection such as EMT or equivalent.

6. Both fiber and coaxial based systems shall be designed such that each floor or remote area shall be covered by a minimum of 2 independent feeders, whereas the failure of a single feeder does not cause signal loss for more than 50% of the required coverage for that floor or remote area. A remote area shall be defined as an area served by a feeder providing connectivity to 2 or more antennae.

Maintenance. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be maintained operational at all times in accordance with Sections through

Testing and proof of compliance. The owner of the building or owner’s authorized agent shall have the emergency responder radio coverage system inspected and tested annually or where structural changes occur including additions or remodels that could materially change the original field performance tests. Testing shall consist of the following items (1) through (7):

1. In-building coverage test as required by the fire code official as described in Section “Acceptance test procedure” or “Alternative in-building coverage test”.

Exception: Group R Occupancy annual testing is not required within dwelling units.

2. Signal boosters shall be tested to verify that the gain/output level is the same as it was upon initial installation and acceptance or set to optimize the performance of the system.

3. Backup batteries and power supplies shall be tested under load of a period of 1 hour to verify that they will properly operate during an actual power outage. If within the 1-hour test period the battery exhibits symptoms of failure, the test shall be extended for additional 1-hour periods until the integrity of the battery can be determined.

4. If a fire alarm system is present in the building, a test shall be conducted to verify that the fire alarm system is properly supervising the emergency responder communication system as required in Section The test is performed by simulating alarms to the fire alarm control panel. The certifications in Section are sufficient for the personnel performing this testing.

5. Other active components shall be checked to verify operation within the manufacturer’s specifications.

6. At the conclusion of the testing, a report, which shall verify compliance with Section , shall be submitted to the fire code official by way of the department’s third-party vendor, www.thecomplianceengine.com, or other such vendor as determined by the department.

7. At the conclusion of testing, a record of the inspection and maintenance along with an updated grid diagram of each floor showing tested strengths in each grid square and each critical area shall be added to the documentation maintained on the premises in accordance with Section

Alternative In-building coverage test. When the comprehensive test documentation required by Section is available, or the most recent full five-year test results are available if the system is older than six years, the in-building coverage test required by the fire code official in Section (1), may be conducted as follows:

1. Functional talk-back testing shall be conducted using two calibrated portable radios of the latest brand and model used by the agency’s radio communications system or other equipment approved by the fire code official. Testing shall use Digital Audible Quality (DAQ) metrics, where a passing result is a DAQ of 3 or higher. Communications between handsets in the following locations shall be tested: between the fire command center or fire alarm control panel and a location outside the building; between the fire alarm control panel and each landing in each stairwell.

2. Coverage testing of signal strength shall be conducted using a calibrated spectrum analyzer for:

(a) Three grid areas per floor. The three grid areas to be tested on each floor are the three grid areas with poorest performance in the acceptance test or the most recent annual test, whichever is more recent; and

(b) Each of the critical areas identified in acceptance test documentation required by Section , or as modified by the fire code official, and

(c) One grid square per serving antenna.

3. The test area boundaries shall not deviate from the areas established at the time of the acceptance test, or as modified by the fire code official. The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder radio coverage when the required signal strength requirements in and are located in 95 percent of all areas on each floor of the building and 99 percent in Critical Areas, and any non-functional serving antenna are repaired to function within normal ranges. If the documentation of the acceptance test or most recent previous annual test results are not available or acceptable to the fire code official, the radio coverage verification testing described in shall be conducted.

Point of Information

The alternative in-building coverage test provides an alternative testing protocol for the in-building coverage test in subsection (1) of section There is no change or alternative to annual testing requirements enumerated in subsections (2) – (7) of Section , which must be performed at the time of each annual test.

Additional frequencies. The building owner shall modify or expand the emergency responder radio coverage system at his or her expense in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or other radio licensing authority, or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC or other radio licensing authority, public safety radio system operator or FCC license holder. Prior approval of a public safety radio coverage system on previous frequencies does not exempt this section.

Nonpublic safety system. Where other nonpublic safety amplification systems installed in buildings reduce the performance or cause interference with the emergency responder communications coverage system, the nonpublic safety amplification system shall be corrected or removed.

Field testing. Agency personnel shall have the right to enter onto the property at any reasonable time to conduct field testing to verify the required level of radio coverage or to disable a system that due to malfunction or poor maintenance has the potential to impact the emergency responder radio system in the region.

AA. A new section is added to read as follows:

Automatic External Defibrillators

BB. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Where required. Automatic External Defibrillators (AED) shall be installed on Port properties in accordance with through

Terminals. AEDs shall be located in all public circulation spaces and holdrooms with a maximum travel distance of feet.

Accessory Terminal Spaces. A minimum of (1) AED shall be located in each airline lounge, club, or tenant breakroom designed to serve more than 50 occupants.

Other Buildings on Port property. A minimum of (1) AED shall be located in an obvious location such as an elevator lobby/entrance.

(Ord. § 2; Ord. § 1: Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 6, Building Services and Systems.

The following local amendments to Chapter 6 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Building Services and Systems,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A.  Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit more than pounds of Group A1 or 30 pounds of any other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section A written record of the required testing shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of the testing; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual system identifying the date of the testing. Tests of emergency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems.

B. Subsection is amended to add the following two (2) subsections to read as follows:

Permit Required. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section

Approved drawing. The stamped and approved cook line drawing shall be displayed adjacent to the suppression system pull station prior to the final inspection.

C.  Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Records. Records for inspections shall state the individual and company performing the inspection, a description of the inspection and when the inspection took place. Records for cleanings shall state the individual and company performing the cleaning and when the cleaning took place. Such records shall be completed after each inspection or cleaning, maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 days of the inspection or cleaning.

(Ord. § 3; Ord. § 2: Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 7, Fire and Smoke Prevention Features.

The following local amendments to Chapter 7 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire and Smoke Prevention Features,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open devices and automatic door closures, where provided, shall be maintained. During the period that such device is out of service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the closed position.

The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of hold-open devices of existing door installations where there has been documented use of door closure impairment devices.

B. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Testing. Horizontal, vertical sliding and rolling fire doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of the inspection or test; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual assembly identifying the date of scheduled confidence test.

(Ord. § 3; Ord. § 3: Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 9, Fire Protection Systems.

The following local amendments to Chapter 9 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire Protection Systems,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of each test, inspection, or maintenance of the system; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual system identifying the date of the scheduled confidence test.

B. Subsection is added to read as follows:

Emergency contacts. It shall be the responsibility of the owner of a/any monitored fire protection system to provide and maintain a minimum of three emergency contacts that are capable of responding to the system location with their monitoring company.

C. The following term is added to subsection

PROBLEMATIC FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.

D. Subsection of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

Where required. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for when one of the following conditions exist:

1. In all buildings without adequate fire flow as required by this code.

Exception: Miscellaneous Group U Occupancies.

2. All new buildings and structures regulated by the International Building Code 6, square feet and greater and requiring 2, gallons per minute or more fire flow, or with a gross floor area of 10, or more square feet, or where this code provides a more restrictive floor/fire area requirement, and shall be provided in all locations or where described by this code.

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries, and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1 hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section of the International Building Code or not less than 2 hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section of the International Building Code, or both.

3. Where this code requires the installation of an automatic sprinkler system to protect an occupancy within an otherwise non-sprinklered building, then automatic sprinkler protection will be required throughout the entire building.

4. When the required fire apparatus access roadway grade is 12 percent or greater.

E. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Speculative use warehouses. Where the occupant, tenant, or use of the building or storage commodity has not been determined or it is otherwise a speculative use warehouse or building, the automatic sprinkler system shall be designed to protect not less than Class IV non-encapsulated commodities on wood pallets, with no solid, slatted, or wire mesh shelving, and with aisles that are 8 feet or more in width and up to 20 feet in height.

F. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Check valve. All automatic sprinkler system risers shall be equipped with a check valve.

G. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Riser Room Access. All risers shall be located in a dedicated room with an exterior door, interior lighting and heat.

H. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Equipment. Systems and their components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed. All new alarm systems shall be addressable. Each device shall have its own address and shall annunciate individual addresses at a UL Central Station.

I. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Initiating device identification. The fire alarm system shall identify the specific initiating device address, location, device type, floor level where applicable and status including indication of normal, alarm, trouble and supervisory status, as appropriate.

Exception: Special initiating devices that do not support individual device identification.

J. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of each test, inspection, or maintenance of the system; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual system identifying the date of the scheduled confidence test.

K. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Latched alarms. All signals shall be automatically “latched” at the alarm panel until their operated devices are returned to normal condition, and the alarm panel is manually reset.

L. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Resetting. All fire alarm panels shall be reset only by an approved person.

Reset Code. The reset code for the fire alarm panel or keypad shall be The reset code shall not be changed without approval of the fire code official.

M. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Fire Alarm Control Panel. All fire alarm control panels shall be located in the riser room designed and installed in accordance with Section or an approved location.

N. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Written record. The records shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replacement. The written record of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises for three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 days of each test or maintenance of the system; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual system identifying the date of the scheduled testing.

O. Subsection is amended to read as follows:

Signs. Fire department connections shall be clearly identified in an approved manner.

All fire department connections shall have an approved sign attached below the Siamese clapper. The sign shall specify the type of water-based fire protection system, the structure, and the building areas served.

(Ord. § 3; Ord. § 4: Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 11, Fire Safety Requirements for Existing Buildings.

The following local amendments to Chapter 11 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire Safety Requirements for Existing Buildings,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Substantial Alterations. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to substantial alterations to existing buildings regardless of use when a substantial alteration occurs in a structure equaling 10, or greater square feet. For the purpose of this section, a substantial alteration shall be defined as an alteration that costs 50% or more of the current assessed value of the structure and impacts more than 50% of the gross floor area.

B. A new subsection is added to read as follows:

Fire alarm control unit. If an existing fire alarm control unit is replaced with identical equipment it shall be considered maintenance.

(Ord. § 3; Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 80, Reference Standards.

The following local amendments to Chapter 80 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Reference Standards,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Section NFPA of the International Fire Code is amended by modifying the standard reference number dates of publication as follows:

Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems

12A

Halon Fire Extinguishing Systems

Installation of Sprinkler Systems

13D

Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes

13R

Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height

Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems

Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection

Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances

National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code

Emergency and Standby Power Systems

Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power Systems

Hazardous Materials Code

Aircraft Fuel Servicing

Aircraft Hangars

Aircraft Maintenance

Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways

Installation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detection and Warning Equipment

Water Mist Fire Protection Systems

Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems

Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Emergency Services Communications Systems

B. Chapter 80 – Reference Standards is amended by adding a new heading and publications as follows:

Other

 

Port of Seattle – City of SeaTac Interlocal Agreement

Rules for Airport Construction

(Ord. § 3; Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Amendments to the International Fire Code – Appendix B, Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings.

The following local amendments to Appendix B to the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Subsection B is amended to read as follows:

B Increases. The fire chief is authorized to increase the fire flow requirements where exposures could be impacted by fire. An increase shall not be more than twice that required for the building under consideration.

Exception: For one- and two-family residences when either of the following conditions apply.

1. 1-hour fire resistant rated exterior walls tested in accordance with ASTM E or UL with exposure on the exterior side and projections with 1-hour underside protection, fire blocking installed from the wall top plate to the underside of the roof sheathing and no gable vent openings.

2. Walls with a distance greater than 10’ to the nearest exposure or face an unbuildable lot, tract or buffer. The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall.

B One- and two-family dwellings. The fire chief is authorized to increase the fire flow requirements by gallons per minute for homes less than 10 feet apart measured from the face of the foundation.

B. Subsection B is amended to read as follows:

B One- and two-family dwellings. Fire-flow requirements for one- and two-family dwellings shall be in accordance with Sections B through B

B Buildings not exceeding 3, square feet. The minimum fire-flow and flow duration requirements shall be 1, gallons per minute for 1 hour.

Exception: A reduction in required fire-flow of 50 percent, as approved, is allowed when the building is equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

B Buildings greater than 3, square feet and less than 4, square feet. The minimum fire-flow and flow duration requirements shall be 1, gallons per minute for 2 hours.

Exception: A reduction in required fire-flow of 50 percent, as approved, is allowed when the building is equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

B Buildings 4, square feet and greater. The minimum fire-flow and flow duration requirements shall not be less than that specified in Table B(2).

Exception: A reduction of fire-flow and flow duration to 1, gallons per minute for 1 hour, as approved, is allowed when the building is equipped with the following:

1. An approved automatic sprinkler system.

B Buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings. The minimum fire-flow and flow duration for buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings shall be as specified in Table B(2).

Exception: A reduction in required fire-flow of 50 percent, as approved, is allowed when the building is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. The resulting fire-flow shall not be less than 1, gallons per minute for the prescribed duration as specified in Table B(2).

B Tents and Membrane structures. No fire flow is required for tents and membrane structures.

B Accessory residential Group U buildings. Accessory residential Group U buildings shall comply with the requirements of B

C. Section B is amended by deleting the following:

Table B(1) Required Fire-Flow for One- and Two-family Dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 Buildings and Townhouses

Table B Required Fire-Flow for Other than One- and Two-family Dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 Buildings and Townhouses

(Ord. § 3; Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 3 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

Automatic location identifier – Enhanced

A. The definitions set forth in WAC are hereby amended to read as follows:

1. “Authority having jurisdiction” is defined as the Fire Chief for the City of SeaTac, or designee.

2. “Building unit identifier” means room number or equivalent designation of a specific portion of a structure, or an apartment number in multi-family residences.

3. “Call back telephone number” means a phone number which can be called from the public switched network to be used by the public safety answering point to recontact the location from which the call was placed. The number may or may not be the number of the station used to originate the call.

4. “Determination of noncompliance” means written notification that a system is not in compliance with this section. Information contained therein shall include, but not be limited to, system deficiencies requiring correction to bring the system into compliance and a date by which noted corrections shall be made.

5. “Director of Fire Protection” means the State Fire Marshal or his/her designee.

6. “Emergency location identification number (ELIN)” means a valid North American Numbering Plan format telephone number assigned to the MLTS operator by the appropriate authority that is used to route the call to a PSAP and is used to retrieve the ALI for the PSAP. The ELIN may be the same number as the ANI. The North American Numbering Plan number may in some cases not be a dialable number.

7. “Emergency response location” means a location to which a emergency response team may be dispatched. The location should be specific enough to provide a reasonable opportunity for the emergency response team to quickly locate a caller anywhere within it.

8. “Fire Official” means the City of SeaTac Fire Chief or designee.

9. “MLTS” means a multi-line telephone system comprised of common control units, telephones and control hardware and software. This includes network and premises based systems and includes systems owned or leased by governmental agencies and nonprofit entities, as well as for-profit businesses.

 “On-site notification” means a system capability whereby a call to is directed through the network to a public safety answering point and simultaneously to a display unit colocated with the fire alarm annunciator panel for the building which will display the caller’s location to a minimum of the building unit identifier.

 “Public safety answering point (PSAP)” means a facility equipped and staffed to receive calls.

B. WAC pertaining to “Applicability,” as now in effect or subsequently amended, is hereby adopted.

C. WAC pertaining to “Compliance,” as now in effect or subsequently amended, is hereby adopted.

D. WAC pertaining to “Inspection,” as now in effect or subsequently amended, is hereby adopted.

E. Violations of this section shall be remedied in accordance with SMC through and by way of correction agreement and/or notice of infraction. (Ord. § 1 (part): Ord. § 2 (part))

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System:Puget Sound Emergency Radio Network (PSERN) (Motorola Type II SmartZone)
Site:Seattle Simulcast ( MHz simulcast)
Receiving Equipment: Uniden BCT15X scanner connected via audio & data to a Windows server running ProScan

The Seattle Fire Department is dispatched by the SFD Fire Alarm Center (FAC). The primary emergency communications center is the Seattle Community Safety and Communications Center (CSCC). The CSCC transfers calls to the FAC for fire, rescue, and medical incidents.

RADIO CHANNELS:

Note: For privacy, some talkgroups including ambulance-to-hospital channels (Medcom) are intentionally omitted from this radio feed.

TABLE 1 - Seattle Fire Department, Zone 1 radio channels scanned on this feed:

Channel #Channel NameTalkgroup ID
1Full Response Fire Operations
2Fire/Rescue Operations
3Fire/Rescue Operations
4 (not scanned)
5Dispatch
6Medical Operations
7Medical Operations
8 (not scanned)
9(not scanned)
10 (encrypted, not scanned)
11Incident Command for Channel 1
12Incident Command for Channel 2
13Incident Command for Channel 3
14Emergency Button Activation
15Rapid Intervention Team (RIT)
16Mayday Emergency Operations

TABLE 2 - Seattle Fire Department common terminology:

TermWhat it Means
Code RedRespond with emergency lights & siren. Default response.
Code YellowRespond without emergency lights & siren. A "code yellow rescue response" is usually an elevator rescue without injury.
Code GreenCancel response and return unit service.
Fire ResponseTypically an automatic fire alarm or reported small fire.
Full ResponseReported structure fire or high-hazard fire. (1st alarm / )
Aid ResponseBasic Life Support (EMT level) medical incident.
Medic ResponseAdvanced Life Support (Paramedic level) medical incident.
Med-6 ResponseSevere trauma incident, requiring at least six personnel.
Med-7 ResponseCardiac arrest incident, requiring at least seven personnel. You can help too, with PulsePoint.
through X11 indicates the number of alarms, so is a 5-alarm fire. Additional resources are added for each alarm.
MCI ResponseMultiple Casualty Incident. Involves many patients.
RIT/RIGRapid Intervention Team. A dedicated engine or ladder company standing by for firefighter rescue.
MDC/MDTMobile Data Computer/Terminal. This is the computer in every apparatus that displays additional run information.
HMCHarborview Medical Center. The level one trauma center for Washington, located on First Hill.
C&CRequest for cops (law enforcement officers) and a coroner for a deceased patient investigation.
FACThe Fire Alarm Center is the dispatch center for the Seattle Fire Department. It is near Fire Station 10 and the Seattle Emergency Operations Center.

Typical Dispatch Order of Events:

  1. Computer-aided dispatch on Channel 4 (not scanned on this feed), along with fire station alert and digital pager alert.
    [ hours: Fire response on channel 2. Engine 18, 9, Ladder 8, Battalion 4.  Russell Avenue Northwest. Cross of Northwest Market Street and 20 Avenue Northwest.]
  2. When the first-due unit is responding, the dispatcher addresses the primary first-due unit on the response channel
    [Engine Fire response. Russell Avenue Northwest.]
  3. The first-due unit acknowledges that they're responding and repeats the address.
    [Engine 18, Russell Avenue Northwest.]
  4. The dispatcher addresses the first-due units of other unit types. The units acknowledge that they're responding.
    [Ladder 8.], [Ladder 8 OK.], [Battalion 4.], [Battalion 4 OK.]
  5. The dispatcher describes the incident in greater detail (this is known as "the chute").
    [This is for a report of smoke inside the Hi-Life restaurant, floor 1. Building alarm indicates smoke in room ]
  6. Upon arrival, the first-in unit describes conditions, actions, and needs.
    [Engine 18 on-scene. Nothing visible; investigating. Evacuation in progress. Engine 18 establishing Russell Command.]
  7. The dispatcher acknowledges the update.
    [OK Engine Nothing visible, evacuation in progress. Engine 18 is Russell Command.]

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Seattle Fire 🔥 Code 3

Archives West Finding Aid

This series contains index cards recording fire code violations by business owners, employees, and citizens. Information given includes date of offense, name, violation, resulting fine and/or judgment. Offenses ranged from obstructing hallways, improper storage of combustibles, "unflameproofed circus tents," illegal sale of fireworks and fire exit doors nailed shut. Smoking in a "no smoking" area also resulted in fines for many longshoremen, fisherman and other individuals working on or near Seattle docks. During the 1920s and 1930s, many theatre owners were fined for allowing people to congregate in the lobby, aisles or for someone smoking on stage.

Use of the CollectionReturn to Top

Preferred Citation

[Item and date],Seattle Fire Marshal Fire Code Violation Cards, Record Series 2810-09. Box [number], Folder [number]. Seattle Municipal Archives.

Administrative InformationReturn to Top


Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

Subject Terms

  • Building inspection--Washington (State)--Seattle
  • Fire prevention--Washington (State)--Seattle

Corporate Names

  • Seattle (Wash.). Fire Dept.
  • Seattle (Wash.). Fire Marshal

Geographical Names

Sours: http://archiveswest.orbiscascade.org/ark:/80444/xv70004

Fire code seattle

Chapter 13.150
FIRE CODE

Sections:

13.150.010    Adoption.

13.150.015    Applicability of Port of Seattle Fire Codes.

13.150.020    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 1, Scope and Administration.

13.150.030    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 2, Definitions.

13.150.040    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 3, General Requirements.

13.150.050    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 4, Emergency Planning and Preparedness.

13.150.060    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 5, Fire Service Features.

13.150.070    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 6, Building Services and Systems.

13.150.080    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 7, Fire and Smoke Prevention Features.

13.150.090    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 9, Fire Protection Systems.

13.150.100    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 11, Fire Safety Requirements for Existing Buildings.

13.150.110    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 80, Reference Standards.

13.150.120    Amendments to the International Fire Code – Appendix B, Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings.

13.150.270    Automatic location identifier – Enhanced 911.

13.150.010 Adoption.

The International Fire Code with Appendix B, 2018 Edition, as published by the International Code Council, as amended in Chapter 51-54A WAC, together with amendments, additions, and deletions adopted by reference, and together with SeaTac modifications, is adopted as the City of SeaTac Fire Code, and referred to as “this code” in this chapter. At least one (1) copy of the adopted edition of the International Fire Code as published by the International Code Council shall be on file in the office of the Building Official on behalf of the City Clerk. (Ord. 20-1028 § 2; Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.015 Applicability of Port of Seattle Fire Codes.

A. With the exception of SMC 13.150.020, should the Port of Seattle Fire Codes, as set forth in the Rules for Airport Construction, conflict with this chapter, that conflict shall be resolved in favor of the Port of Seattle Fire Codes.

B. Subsection (A) of this section only applies for parcels identified as “Inside AAA” or “Addition” on Appendix 3A – Airport Activity Area Map, pursuant to the 2018 Interlocal Agreement between the City and the Port of Seattle (dated December 20, 2017, and effective February 17, 2018). (Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part))

13.150.020 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 1, Scope and Administration.

The following local amendments to Chapter 1 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Scope and Administration,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. A new subsection 104.1.1 is added to read as follows:

104.1.1 Retained authority – Additional conditions. The fire code official retains the authority to impose additional conditions where the official determines it necessary to mitigate identified fire protection impacts and problematic fire protection systems. These conditions may include, by way of example and without limitation, increased setbacks, use of fire retardant materials, installation and/or modification of standpipes, fire sprinkler and fire alarm systems.

B. A new subsection 105.1.5 is added to read as follows:

105.1.5 Term. Operational permits issued in accordance with this code shall be valid for a 12-month period and are renewable at the end of that 12-month term.

C. Subsection 105.6 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

105.6 Required operational permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue operational permits for the operations set forth in Sections 105.6.1 through 105.6.67.

D. A new subsection 105.6.60 is added to read as follows:

105.6.60 Commercial Kitchen. An operational permit is required for all commercial kitchens with type I hood systems.

E. A new subsection 105.6.61 is added to read as follows:

105.6.61 Emergency and standby power systems. An operational permit is required for code required emergency or standby power systems identified in NFPA 110.

F. A new subsection 105.6.62 is added to read as follows:

105.6.62 Fire Protection System Contractor. An operational permit is required for all companies performing any installation, inspection, service, maintenance, or repair of any fire protection system.

G. A new subsection 105.6.63 is added to read as follows:

105.6.63 Commercial Kitchen Hood and Duct Systems Contractor. An operational permit is required for all companies performing any inspection or cleaning of commercial kitchen hood and duct systems.

H. A new subsection 105.6.64 is added to read as follows:

105.6.64 Powder Actuated Fasteners. For parcels zoned Aviation Operations (“AVO”) or Aviation Commercial (“AVC”), an operational permit is required for any activities utilizing powder actuated fasteners.

I. A new subsection 105.6.65 is added to read as follows:

105.6.65 Food Trucks. For parcels zoned Aviation Operations (“AVO”) or Aviation Commercial (“AVC”), an operational permit is required for any activities utilizing food trucks.

J. A new subsection 105.6.66 is added to read as follows:

105.6.66 Use of Aircraft Hangars or Warehouses for an event. For parcels zoned Aviation Operations (“AVO”) or Aviation Commercial (“AVC”), an operational permit is required for any activities utilizing an aircraft hangar or warehouse for an event with more than 100 people.

K. A new subsection 105.6.67 is added to read as follows:

105.6.67 Fuel Storage Tanks. For parcels zoned Aviation Operations (“AVO”) or Aviation Commercial (“AVC”), an operational permit is required for any activities utilizing fuel storage tanks.

L. Subsection 105.7 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

105.7 Required construction permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue construction permits for work set forth in Sections 105.7.1 through 105.7.30.

M. A new subsection 105.7.30 is added to read as follows:

105.7.30 Emergency and standby power systems. A construction permit is required for the installation of a code required emergency or standby power systems identified in NFPA 110.

N. Subsection 106.3 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

106.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. When work is started or proceeded prior to obtaining approval or required permits, the ordinary fees shall be doubled. The payment of such double fee shall not relieve any persons from fully complying with the requirement of this code in the execution of the work nor from any other penalties prescribed by this code.

O. Section 108 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

108 Appeals. The Hearing Examiner shall constitute the board of appeals for all matters concerning the application of the technical codes. Appeals to the hearing examiner shall be made pursuant to Chapter 13.100.100 SMC.

P. Subsection 109.4 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

109.4 Violation Penalties. Persons who shall violate a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, repair or do work in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the fire code official, or of a permit or certificate used under provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than one thousand (1,000) dollars or by imprisonment of not more than 90 days, or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation continues after due notice has been served shall be deemed a separate offense.

Q. Subsection 112.4 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

112.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such as that person is directed, by the City, to perform or remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less than one hundred ($100.00) dollars or more than double the amount.

(Ord. 20-1028 § 2; Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.030 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 2, Definitions.

The following local amendment to Chapter 2 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Definitions,” is hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. The following definitions are added to Section 202 of the International Fire Code to read as follows:

OUTDOOR STORAGE. The storage of materials on-site which are not in transit.

PROBLEMATIC FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. A fire protection system that generates repeated preventable alarms.

(Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.040 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 3, General Requirements.

The following local amendments to Chapter 3 of the International Fire Code, entitled “General Requirements,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. A new subsection 308.1.6.3 is added to read as follows:

308.1.6.3 Sky lanterns. The use of sky lanterns is prohibited.

(Ord. 20-1028 § 2; Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.050 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 4, Emergency Planning and Preparedness.

This section is reserved. (Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.060 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 5, Fire Service Features.

The following local amendments to Chapter 5 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire Service Features,” are adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Section 503 of the International Fire Code is adopted.

B. Subsection 503.2.1 is amended to read as follows:

503.2.1 Dimensions. The following minimum dimensions shall apply for fire apparatus access roads:

1. Fire apparatus access roads shall have an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet, except for approved security gates in accordance with section 503.6, and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 13 feet 6 inches.

2. All fire apparatus access road routes shall be approved.

C. Subsection 503.2.3 is amended to read as follows:

503.2.3 Surface. Facilities, buildings, or portions of buildings constructed shall be accessible to fire department apparatus by way of an approved fire apparatus access road with asphalt or concrete capable of supporting the imposed load of fire apparatus weighing at least 30 tons in accordance with the City Road Standards, as set forth in SMC 11.05.

D. Subsection 503.2.5 is amended to read as follows:

503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in excess of 150 feet in length shall be provided with an approved turnaround.

E. Subsection 503.2.6 is amended to read as follows:

503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the bridge or elevated surface shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with specifications established by the fire code official and the public works director, or their designees; at a minimum, however, the bridge or elevated surface shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry 30 or more ton fire apparatus, the total imposed load to be determined by the fire code official. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to bridges when required by the fire code official. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces which are not designed for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or both shall be installed and maintained when required by the fire code official.

F. Subsection 503.2.7 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

503.2.7 Grade. Fire apparatus access roads shall not exceed 15 percent longitudinally and/or 6 percent laterally in grade. Approach and departure angle for fire access shall be as determined by the fire code official.

G. A new subsection 503.2.9 is added to read as follows:

503.2.9 Access road width with a hydrant. Where a fire hydrant is located on a fire apparatus access road, for 20 feet on either side of the operating nut the minimum road width shall be 26 feet and may be marked as a fire lane per Section 503.3.

H. Subsection 503.3 is amended to read as follows:

503.3 Marking. Fire apparatus access roads shall be marked whenever necessary to maintain the unobstructed minimum required width of roadways. Subject to the fire code official’s prior written approval, marked fire apparatus access roads, or fire lanes, may be established or relocated at the time of plan review, pre-construction site inspection, and/or post construction site inspection as well as any time during the life of the occupancy. Only those fire apparatus access roads established by the fire code official can utilize red marking paint and the term fire lane. Fire lanes shall be marked as directed by the fire code official with one or more of the following types of marking in accordance with the City of SeaTac Design and Construction Standards:

503.3.1 Type 1. Type 1 marking shall be installed to identify fire lanes on hammerhead turnarounds, commercial and multi-family developments or as directed by the fire code official. The following shall apply to Type 1 marking:

1. Curbs shall be identifiable by red traffic paint with a 6 inch wide stripe on the top and front, extending the length of the designated fire lane.

2. Rolled curbs shall be identified by red traffic paint with a 6 inch wide stripe on the upper most portion of the curb, extending the length of the designated fire lane.

3. Lanes without curbs shall be identified by red traffic paint with a 6 inch wide stripe on the pavement, extending the length of the designated fire lane.

4. The words “NO PARKING – FIRE LANE” shall be in 3 inch stroke white letters 18 inches in height, and placed 8 inches measured perpendicular from the red paint stripe on the pavement. Locations and intervals will be designated by the fire code official; marking will not exceed 50 feet apart. In most cases, both sides of the access road shall be marked. Where long drives are to be marked, the repetition shall alternate sides of the drive.

503.3.2 Type 2. Type 2 marking shall be installed to identify fire lanes in one- and two-family dwelling developments, or as directed by the fire code official. The following shall apply to Type 2 marking:

1. Type 2 marking requires metal signs stating “NO PARKING – FIRE LANE” to be installed at intervals or locations designated by the fire code official; signage will not exceed 150 feet apart.

2. The signs shall measure 12 inches in width and 18 inches in height and have red letters on a white background. Bottom of sign shall be a minimum of 7 feet from the curb. Signs shall be nominally parallel to the road, facing the direction of travel.

3. The sign shall be installed on an approved metal post.

Exception: On construction sites, approved portable or temporary sign posts and bases may be used.

4. Where fire lanes are adjacent to buildings or structures and when approved or directed by the fire code official, the signs may be placed on the face of the building or structure.

503.3.3. Type 3. Type 3 marking shall be installed to address situations where neither Type 1 or 2 marking are effective or as directed by the fire code official.

1. Specific areas designated by the fire code official shall be marked with diagonal striping across the width of the fire lane. Diagonal marking shall be used in conjunction with painted curbs and/or edge striping and shall run at an angle of 30 to 60 degrees from one side to the other. These diagonal lines shall be in red traffic paint, parallel with each other, at least 6 inches in width, and 24 inches apart. Lettering shall occur as with Type 1 marking.

I. Subsection 503.7 is added to read as follows:

503.7 Establishment of fire lanes. Fire lanes in conformance with this code shall be established by the Fire Chief or his/her authorized designee, and shall be in accordance with 503.7.1 through 503.7.9.

503.7.1 Obstruction of fire lanes prohibited. The obstruction of a designated fire lane by a parked vehicle or any other object is prohibited and shall constitute a traffic hazard as defined in State law and an immediate hazard to life and property.

503.7.2 Existing fire lane signs and markings. The following signs and markings shall be provided:

1. Signs (minimum nine-inch by 16-inch) may be allowed to remain until there is a need for replacement and at that time the sign shall meet the requirements of section 503.3.2.

2. Markings may be allowed to remain until there is a need for repainting and at that time the provisions outlined in 503.3 shall be complied with.

503.7.3 Maintenance. Fire lane markings shall be maintained at the expense of the property owner(s) as often as needed to clearly identify the designated area as being a fire lane.

503.7.4 Towing notification. At each entrance to property where fire lanes have been designated, signs shall be posted in a clearly conspicuous location and shall clearly state that vehicles parked in fire lanes may be impounded, and the name, telephone number, and address of the towing firm where the vehicle may be redeemed.

503.7.5 Responsible property owner. The owner, manager, or person in charge of any property upon which designated fire lanes have been established shall prevent the parking of vehicles or placement of other obstructions in such fire lanes.

503.7.6 Violation – Penalty. Any person who fails to mark or maintain the marking of a designated fire lane as prescribed herein, or who obstructs or allows the obstruction of a designated fire lane, other than the parking of a vehicle, shall be deemed to have committed a Class 2 civil infraction. The penalty for violation of this section shall be a maximum monetary penalty of one hundred twenty-five dollars ($125.00), not including statutory assessments.

503.7.7 Violation – Civil penalty. In addition to, or as an alternate to, the penalties specified above, the City is authorized to enforce all provisions of this chapter, specifically including civil penalties, pursuant to Chapter 1.15 SMC.

503.7.8 Impoundment. Any vehicle or object obstructing a designated fire lane is declared a traffic hazard and may be abated without prior notification to its owner by impoundment pursuant to the applicable State law. The owner or operator shall be responsible for all towing and impound charges.

J. A new subsection 503.8 is added to read as follows:

503.8 Commercial and Industrial Developments. The fire apparatus access roads serving commercial and industrial developments shall be in accordance with Sections 503.8.1 through 503.8.3.

503.8.1 Buildings exceeding three stories or 30 feet in height. Buildings or facilities exceeding 30 feet or three stories in height shall have at least two means of fire apparatus access for each structure.

503.8.2 Buildings exceeding 62,000 square feet in area. Buildings or facilities having a gross building area of more than 62,000 square feet shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

Exception: Projects having a gross building area of up to 124,000 square feet that have a single approved fire apparatus access road when all buildings are equipped throughout with approved automatic sprinkler systems.

503.8.3 Remoteness. Where two access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the property or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses or as approved by the fire code official and the fire chief.

K. A new subsection 503.9 is added to read as follows:

503.9 Aerial fire apparatus roads. The fire apparatus access roads that accommodate aerial fire apparatus shall be in accordance with Sections 503.9.1 through 503.9.3.

503.9.1 Where required. Buildings or portions of buildings or facilities exceeding 30 feet in height above the lowest level of fire department access shall be provided with approved fire apparatus access roads that are capable of accommodating fire department aerial apparatus.

503.9.2 Width. Fire apparatus access roads shall have a minimum unobstructed width of 26 feet in the immediate vicinity of any building or portion of building more than 30 feet in height.

503.9.3 Proximity to building. At least one of the required access routes meeting this condition shall be positioned parallel to one entire side of the building. The location of the parallel access route shall be approved.

503.9.4 Obstructions. Overhead utility and power lines shall not be located over the aerial fire apparatus access roads or between the aerial apparatus access road and the building. Other obstructions shall be permitted to be placed with the approval of the fire code official.

L. A new subsection 503.10 is added to read as follows:

503.10 Multi-family residential developments. The fire apparatus access roads serving multi-family residential developments shall be in accordance with Sections 503.10.1 through 503.10.3.

503.10.1 Projects having more than 100 dwelling units. Multi-family residential projects having more than 100 dwelling units shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

Exception: Projects having up to 200 dwelling units may have a single approved fire apparatus access road when all buildings, including nonresidential occupancies, are equipped throughout with approved automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

503.10.2 Projects having more than 200 dwelling units. Multi-family residential projects having more than 200 dwelling units shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads regardless of whether they are equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

503.10.3 Remoteness. Where two access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the property or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses or as approved by the fire code official and fire chief.

M. A new subsection 503.11 is added to read as follows:

503.11 One- and Two-family residential developments with more than 30 dwelling units. The fire apparatus access roads serving one and two-family residential developments with more than 30 dwelling units shall be in accordance with Sections 503.11.1 and 503.11.2.

503.11.1 Projects having more than 30 dwelling units. Developments of one- or two-family dwellings where the number of dwelling units exceed 30 shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

Exceptions:

1. Where there are more than 30 dwelling units on a single public or private fire apparatus access road and all dwelling units are equipped throughout with approved automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2, or 903.3.1.3 of the International Fire Code, access from two directions shall not be required.

2. The number of dwelling units on a single fire apparatus access road shall not be increased unless fire apparatus

access roads will, within a reasonable time, connect with future development, as determined by the fire code official.

503.11.2 Remoteness. Where two access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the property or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses or as approved by the fire code official and fire chief.

N.  A new subsection 503.12 is added to read as follows:

503.12 Underground structures. Installation of underground structures under or within 10 feet of fire apparatus access roads shall be designed using approved criteria. The criteria shall accommodate for the loading of fire department aerial apparatus unless otherwise approved.

O. A new subsection 507.5.2.1 is added to read as follows:

507.5.2.1 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standard shall be maintained on the premises for three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of each test, inspection, or maintenance of the system.

P.  Subsection 507.5.6 is amended to read as follows:

507.5.6 Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts shall be designed and installed in accordance with the local water purveyor’s design and construction standards.

Q.  Subsection 507.5.7 is amended to read as follows:

507.5.7 Fire hydrant. Fire hydrants shall be designed and installed in accordance with the local water purveyor’s design and construction standards.

R. Subsection 507.5.8 is amended to read as follows:

507.5.8 Backflow prevention. All private fire systems shall be isolated by an approved method from the local water purveyor.

S. Subsection 507.6 is amended to read as follows:

507.6 Capacity for residential areas. All hydrants installed in single family residential areas shall be capable of delivering 1,500 gpm fire flow over and above average maximum demands at the farthest point of the installation.

T. Subsection 507.7 is amended to read as follows:

507.7 Spacing. The spacing of hydrants shall be in accordance with Sections 507.7.1 through 507.7.5.

507.7.1 Single family. The maximum fire hydrant spacing serving single family residential areas shall be 600 feet.

507.7.2 Commercial, industrial and multi-family. The maximum fire hydrant spacing serving commercial, industrial, multi-family or other areas shall be 300 feet.

507.7.3 Medians. Where streets are provided with median dividers which cannot be crossed by firefighters pulling hose lines hydrants shall be provided on each side of the street and be arranged on an alternating basis.

507.7.4 Arterials. Where arterial streets are provided with four or more traffic lanes hydrants shall be provided on each side of the street and be arranged on an alternating basis.

507.7.5 Transportation. Where new water mains are extended along streets where hydrants are not needed for protection of structures or similar fire problems, fire hydrants shall be provided at a spacing not to exceed 1,000 feet to provide for transportation hazards.

U. Subsection 507.8 is amended to read as follows:

507.8 Required hydrants. The number of hydrants required for a property shall be based on the calculated fire flow. The first hydrant will be calculated for up to 1,500 gpm. An additional hydrant is required for every 1,000 gpm, or fraction thereof. The required hydrants shall be within 600 feet of the property on a fire apparatus road, as measured by an approved method.

V. Subsection 507.9 is amended to read as follows:

507.9 Notification. The owner of property on which private hydrants are located and the public agencies that own or control public hydrants must provide the fire code official with the following written service notifications in accordance with 507.9.1 and 507.9.2.

507.9.1 In-service notification. The fire code official shall be notified when any newly installed hydrant is placed into service.

507.9.2 Out-of-service notifications. Where any hydrant is out of service or has not yet been placed in service, the hydrant shall be identified as being out of service and shall be appropriately marked as out of service, by a method approved by the fire code official.

W. Subsection 507.10 is amended to read as follows:

507.10 Water main standards. The installation of water mains shall be in accordance with 507.10.1 and 507.10.2.

507.10.1 Minimum pipe size. All water mains serving fire hydrants shall be eight (8) inches in diameter for dead-end mains and six (6) inches inside diameter for circulating mains.

Exception: Hydrant leads less than fifty (50) feet in length may be six (6) inches in diameter.

507.10.2 Adopted standards. All water mains shall meet applicable engineering and health standards adopted by the State of Washington or the water purveyor.

X. Subsection 507.11 is amended to read as follows:

507.11 Water purveyor authority. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit water purveyors from imposing more stringent requirements for the construction of water mains and fire hydrants.

Y. Subsection 508.1 is amended to read as follows:

508.1 General. Where required by other sections of the code and in all buildings classified as high-rise or those buildings used as an airport terminal, a fire command center for fire department operations shall be provided and shall comply with Sections 508.1.1 through 508.1.6.

Z. Section 510 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

510.1 Emergency responder radio coverage in new buildings. Approved radio coverage for emergency responders shall be provided within buildings meeting any of the following conditions:

1. High rise buildings;

2. The total building area is 50,000 square feet or more;

3. The total basement area is 10,000 square feet or more; or

4. There are floors used for human occupancy more than 30 feet below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

5. Buildings or structures where the Fire or Police Chief determines that in-building radio coverage is critical because of its unique design, location, use or occupancy.

The radio coverage system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 510.5.1 through 510.5.5 of this code and with the provisions of NFPA 1221. This section shall not require improvement of the existing public safety communication systems.

Point of Information

When determining if the minimum signal strength referenced 510.4.1.1 exists at a subject building, the signal strength shall be measured at any point on the exterior of the building up to the highest point on the roof.

Exceptions:

1. Buildings and areas of buildings that have minimum radio coverage signal strength levels of the King County Regional 800 MHz Radio System within the building in accordance with Section 510.4.1 without the use of a radio coverage system.

2. In facilities where emergency responder radio coverage is required and such systems, components or equipment required could have a negative impact on the normal operations of that facility, the fire code official shall have the authority to accept an automatically activated emergency responder radio coverage system.

3. One- and two-family dwellings and townhouses.

510.2 Emergency responder radio coverage in existing buildings. Existing buildings shall be provided with approved radio coverage for emergency responders as required in Chapter 11.

510.3 Permit required. A construction permit for the installation of or modification to emergency responder radio coverage systems and related equipment is required as specified in Section 105.7.6. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.

Point of Information

Prior coordination and approval from the Public Safety Radio System Operator is required before installation of an Emergency Responder Radio System. Until 2022, such approval is required from EPSCA, King County, Seattle or ValleyCom depending on the location of the installation. In 2022 PSERN will be the single operator of a county wide system.

In order to be forward compatible, designers and contractors should be aware of PSERN’s requirements for Distributed Antenna Systems which can be found via https://psern.org/requirements/

510.4 Technical requirements. Systems, components and equipment required to provide the emergency responder radio coverage system shall comply with Sections 510.4.1 through 510.4.2.8.

510.4.1 Emergency responder communication enhancement system signal strength. The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder communications enhancement system coverage when signal strength measurements in 95 percent of all areas on each floor of the building meet the signal strength requirements in Sections 510.4.1.1 through 510.4.1.3.

Exception: Critical areas, such as the fire command center(s), the fire pump room(s), interior exit stairways, exit passageways, elevator lobbies, standpipe cabinets, sprinkler sectional valve locations, and other areas required by the fire code official, shall be provided with 99 percent floor area radio coverage.

510.4.1.1 Minimum signal strength into the building. The minimum inbound signal strength shall be sufficient to provide usable voice communications throughout the coverage area as specified by the fire code official. The inbound signal level shall be a minimum of -95 dBm in 95% of the coverage area and 99% in critical areas and sufficient to provide not less than a Delivered Audio Quality (DAQ) of 3.0 or an equivalent Signal-to-Interference-Plus-Noise Ratio (SINR) applicable to the technology for either analog or digital signals.

510.4.1.2 Minimum signal strength out of the building. The minimum outbound signal strength shall be sufficient to provide usable voice communications throughout the coverage area as specified by the fire code official. The outbound signal level shall be sufficient to provide not less than a DAQ of 3.0 or an equivalent SINR applicable to the technology for either analog or digital signals. A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be received by the King County Regional 800 MHz Radio System when transmitted from within the building.

510.4.1.3 System performance. Signal strength shall be sufficient to meet the requirements of the applications being utilized by public safety for emergency operations through the coverage area as specified by the radio system manager in Section 510.4.2.2.

510.4.2 System design. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be designed in accordance with Sections 510.4.2.1 through 510.4.2.8 and NFPA 1221.

510.4.2.1 Amplification systems and components. Buildings and structures that cannot support the required level of radio coverage shall be equipped with systems and components to enhance the public safety radio signals and achieve the required level of radio coverage specified in Sections 510.4.1 through 510.4.1.3. Public safety communications enhancement systems utilizing radio-frequency-emitting devices and cabling shall be allowed by the Public Safety Radio System Operator. Prior to installation, all RF-emitting devices shall have the certification of the radio licensing authority and be suitable for public safety use.

510.4.2.2 Technical criteria. The Public Safety Radio System Operator shall provide the various frequencies required, the location of radio sites, the effective radiated power of radio sites, the maximum propagation delay in microseconds, the applications being used and other supporting technical information necessary for system design upon request by the building owner or owner’s representative.

510.4.2.3 Power supply sources. Emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be provided with dedicated standby batteries or provided with 2-hour standby batteries and connected to the facility generator power system in accordance with Section 1203. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system at 100-percent system capacity for a duration of not less than 12 hours.

510.4.2.4 Signal booster requirements. If used, signal boosters shall meet the following requirements:

1. All signal booster components shall be contained in a National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) 4, IP66-type waterproof cabinet or equivalent.

Exception: Listed battery systems that are contained in integrated battery cabinets.

2. Battery systems used for the emergency power source shall be contained in a NEMA 3R or higher-rated cabinet, IP65-type waterproof cabinet or equivalent.

3. Equipment shall have FCC or other radio licensing authority certification and be suitable for public safety use prior to installation.

4. Where a donor antenna exists, isolation shall be maintained between the donor antenna and all inside antennas to not less than 20dB greater than the system gain under all operating conditions.

5. Bi-Directional Amplifiers (BDAs) used in emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be fitted with anti-oscillation circuitry and per-channel AGC.

6. The installation of amplification systems or systems that operate on or provide the means to cause interference on any emergency responder radio coverage networks shall be coordinated and approved by the Public Safety Radio System Operator.

7. Unless otherwise approved by the Public Safety Radio System Operator, only channelized signal boosters shall be permitted.

Exception: Broadband BDA’s may be utilized when specifically authorized in writing by the Public Safety Radio System Operator.

Point of Information

BDA’s must also comply with PSERN’s (www.psern.org/requirements) detailed requirements, which include channelized, minimum of 28 channels, supporting analog, P25 Phase I (FDMA), and P25 Phase II (TDMA).

510.4.2.5 System monitoring. The emergency responder radio enhancement system shall include automatic supervisory and trouble signals that are monitored by a supervisory service and are annunciated by the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72. The following conditions shall be separately annunciated by the fire alarm system, or, if the status of each of the following conditions is individually displayed on a dedicated panel on the radio enhancement system, a single automatic supervisory signal may be annunciated on the fire alarm system indicating deficiencies of the radio enhancement system:

1. Loss of normal AC power supply.

2. System battery charger(s) failure.

3. Malfunction of the donor antenna(s).

4. Failure of active RF-emitting device(s).

5. Low-battery capacity at 70-percent reduction of operating capacity.

6. Active system component malfunction.

7. Malfunction of the communications link between the fire alarm system and the emergency responder radio enhancement system.

510.4.2.6 Additional frequencies and change of frequencies. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be capable of modification or expansion in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or other radio licensing authority, or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC or other radio licensing authority.

510.4.2.7 Design documents. The fire code official shall have the authority to require “as-built” design documents and specifications for emergency responder communications coverage systems. The documents shall be in a format acceptable to the fire code official.

510.4.2.8 Radio communication antenna density. Systems shall be engineered to minimize the near-far effect. Radio enhancement system designs shall include sufficient antenna density to address reduced gain conditions.

Exceptions:

1. Class A narrow band signal booster devices with independent AGC/ALC circuits per channel.

2. Systems where all portable devices within the same band use active power control

510.5 Installation requirements. The installation of the public safety radio coverage system shall be in accordance with NFPA 1221 and Sections 510.5.1 through 510.5.7.

510.5.1 Approval prior to installation. Amplification systems capable of operating on frequencies licensed to any public safety agency by the FCC or other radio licensing authority shall not be installed without prior coordination and approval of the Public Safety Radio System Operator.

510.5.2 Minimum qualifications of personnel. The minimum qualifications of the system designer and lead installation personnel shall include both of the following:

1. A valid FCC-issued general radio telephone operators license.

2. Certification of in-building system training issued by an approved organization or approved school, or a certificate issued by the manufacturer of the equipment being installed.

510.5.3 Acceptance test procedure. Where an emergency responder radio coverage system is required, and upon completion of installation, the building owner shall have the radio system tested to verify that two-way coverage on each floor of the building is in accordance with Section 510.4.1. The test procedure shall be conducted as follows:

1. Each floor of the building shall be divided into a grid of 20 approximately equal test areas, with a maximum test area size of 6,400 square feet. Where the floor area exceeds 128,000 square feet, the floor shall be divided into as many approximately equal test areas as needed, such that no test area exceeds the maximum square footage allowed for a test area.

2. Coverage testing of signal strength shall be conducted using a calibrated spectrum analyzer for each of the test grids. A diagram of this testing shall be created for each floor where coverage is provided, indicating the testing grid used for the test in Section 510.5.3(1), and including signal strengths and frequencies for each test area. Indicate all critical areas.

3. Functional talk-back testing shall be conducted using two calibrated portable radios of the latest brand and model used by the agency’s radio communications system or other equipment approved by the fire code official. Testing shall use Digital Audible Quality (DAQ) metrics, where a passing result is a DAQ of 3 or higher. Communications between handsets shall be tested and recorded in the grid square diagram required by section 510.5.3(2): each grid square on each floor; between each critical area and a radio outside the building; between each critical area and the fire command center or fire alarm control panel; between each landing in each stairwell and the fire command center or fire alarm control panel.

4. Failure of more than 5% of the test areas on any floor shall result in failure of the test.

Exception: Critical areas shall be provided with 99 percent floor area coverage.

5. In the event that two of the test areas fail the test, in order to be more statistically accurate, the floor shall be permitted to be divided into 40 equal test areas. Failure of not more than two nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test. If the system fails the 40-area test, the system shall be altered to meet the 95-percent coverage requirement.

6. A test location approximately in the center of each test area shall be selected for the test, with the radio enabled to verify two-way communications to and from the outside of the building through the public agency’s radio communications system. Once the test location has been selected, that location shall represent the entire test area. Failure in the selected test location shall be considered to be a failure of that test area. Additional test locations shall not be permitted.

7. The gain values of all amplifiers shall be measured, and the test measurement results shall be kept on file with the building owner so that the measurements can be verified during annual tests. In the event that the measurement results become lost, the building owner shall be required to rerun the acceptance test to reestablish the gain values.

8. As part of the installation, a spectrum analyzer or other suitable test equipment shall be utilized to ensure spurious oscillations are not being generated by the subject signal booster. This test shall be conducted at the time of installation and at subsequent annual inspections.

9. Systems incorporating Class B signal booster devices or Class B broadband fiber remote devices shall be tested using two portable radios simultaneously conducting subjective voice quality checks. One portable radio shall be positioned not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the indoor antenna. The second portable radio shall be positioned at a distance that represents the farthest distance from any indoor antenna. With both portable radios simultaneously keyed up on different frequencies within the same band, subjective audio testing shall be conducted and comply with DAQ levels as specified in Sections 510.4.1.1 and 510.4.1.2.

10. Documentation maintained on premises. At the conclusion of the testing, and prior to issuance of the building Certificate of Occupancy, the building owner or owner’s representative shall place a copy of the following records in the DAS enclosure or the building engineer’s office. The records shall be available to the fire code official and maintained by the building owner for the life of the system:

a. A certification letter stating that the emergency responder radio coverage system has been installed and tested in accordance with this code, and that the system is complete and fully functional.

b. The grid square diagram created as part of testing in Sections 510.5.3(2) and 510.5.3(3).

c. Data sheets and/or manufacturer specifications for the emergency responder radio coverage system equipment; back up battery; and charging system (if utilized).

d. A diagram showing device locations and wiring schematic.

e. A copy of the electrical permit.

11. Acceptance test reporting to fire code official. At the conclusion of the testing, and prior to issuance of the building Certificate of Occupancy, the building owner or owner’s representative shall submit copies of the acceptance test in a form and manner determined by the fire code official.

510.5.4 FCC compliance. The emergency responder radio coverage system installation and components shall comply with all applicable federal regulations including, but not limited to, FCC 47 CFR Part 90.219.

510.5.5 Mounting of the donor antenna(s). To maintain proper alignment with the system designed donor site, donor antennas shall be permanently affixed on the highest possible position on the building or where approved by the fire code official. A clearly visible sign shall be placed near the antenna stating, “movement or repositioning of this antenna is prohibited without approval from the fire code official.” The antenna installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements in the International Building Code for weather protection of the building envelope.

510.5.6 Wiring. The backbone, antenna distribution, radiating, or any fiber-optic cables shall be rated as plenum cables. The backbone cables shall be connected to the antenna distribution, radiating, or copper cables using hybrid coupler devices of a value determined by the overall design. Backbone cables shall be routed through an enclosure that matches the building’s required fire-resistance rating for shafts or interior exit stairways. The connection between the backbone cable and the antenna cables shall be made within an enclosure that matches the building’s fire-resistance rating for shafts or interior exit stairways, and passage of the antenna distribution cable in and out of the enclosure shall be protected as a penetration per the International Building Code.

510.5.7 Identification Signs. Emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be identified by an approved sign located on or near the Fire Alarm Control Panel or other approved location stating “This building is equipped with an Emergency Responder Radio Coverage System. Control Equipment located in room___”.

A sign stating “Emergency Responder Radio Coverage System Equipment” shall be placed on or adjacent to the door of the room containing the main system components.

510.5.8 Port of Seattle Pathway Survivability Alternatives. In lieu of the prescriptive requirements of NFPA 72 and 1221, the Port of Seattle Fire Department will allow the following alternatives for pathway survivability:

1. All backbone pathways (riser cables, donor antenna cables, BDA cables) between signal boosters, donor antennae and secondary power supplies and between head end and remote units for fiber-based systems shall be protected by a 2-hour fire rated enclosure.

2. All signal booster components and battery backup equipment, located in rooms with fire sprinklers, shall be installed in NEMA-4 type waterproof cabinets.

3. The connection between the riser and feeder coaxial cables shall be made within 2-hour rated enclosure, and passage of the feeder cable in and out of the 2-hour rated enclosure shall be fire stopped to a 2-hour rating.

4. Feeder cables that are installed above ceilings in buildings that are protected with an automatic fire sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 shall not require additional physical protection. Feeder cables in these installations shall be plenum rated.

5. Feeder cables that are installed in areas without ceilings shall require additional physical protection such as EMT or equivalent.

6. Both fiber and coaxial based systems shall be designed such that each floor or remote area shall be covered by a minimum of 2 independent feeders, whereas the failure of a single feeder does not cause signal loss for more than 50% of the required coverage for that floor or remote area. A remote area shall be defined as an area served by a feeder providing connectivity to 2 or more antennae.

510.6 Maintenance. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be maintained operational at all times in accordance with Sections 510.6.1 through 510.6.4.

510.6.1 Testing and proof of compliance. The owner of the building or owner’s authorized agent shall have the emergency responder radio coverage system inspected and tested annually or where structural changes occur including additions or remodels that could materially change the original field performance tests. Testing shall consist of the following items (1) through (7):

1. In-building coverage test as required by the fire code official as described in Section 510.5.3 “Acceptance test procedure” or 510.6.1.1 “Alternative in-building coverage test”.

Exception: Group R Occupancy annual testing is not required within dwelling units.

2. Signal boosters shall be tested to verify that the gain/output level is the same as it was upon initial installation and acceptance or set to optimize the performance of the system.

3. Backup batteries and power supplies shall be tested under load of a period of 1 hour to verify that they will properly operate during an actual power outage. If within the 1-hour test period the battery exhibits symptoms of failure, the test shall be extended for additional 1-hour periods until the integrity of the battery can be determined.

4. If a fire alarm system is present in the building, a test shall be conducted to verify that the fire alarm system is properly supervising the emergency responder communication system as required in Section 510.4.2.5. The test is performed by simulating alarms to the fire alarm control panel. The certifications in Section 510.5.2 are sufficient for the personnel performing this testing.

5. Other active components shall be checked to verify operation within the manufacturer’s specifications.

6. At the conclusion of the testing, a report, which shall verify compliance with Section 510.6.1, shall be submitted to the fire code official by way of the department’s third-party vendor, www.thecomplianceengine.com, or other such vendor as determined by the department.

7. At the conclusion of testing, a record of the inspection and maintenance along with an updated grid diagram of each floor showing tested strengths in each grid square and each critical area shall be added to the documentation maintained on the premises in accordance with Section 510.5.3.

510.6.1.1 Alternative In-building coverage test. When the comprehensive test documentation required by Section 510.5.3 is available, or the most recent full five-year test results are available if the system is older than six years, the in-building coverage test required by the fire code official in Section 510.6.1(1), may be conducted as follows:

1. Functional talk-back testing shall be conducted using two calibrated portable radios of the latest brand and model used by the agency’s radio communications system or other equipment approved by the fire code official. Testing shall use Digital Audible Quality (DAQ) metrics, where a passing result is a DAQ of 3 or higher. Communications between handsets in the following locations shall be tested: between the fire command center or fire alarm control panel and a location outside the building; between the fire alarm control panel and each landing in each stairwell.

2. Coverage testing of signal strength shall be conducted using a calibrated spectrum analyzer for:

(a) Three grid areas per floor. The three grid areas to be tested on each floor are the three grid areas with poorest performance in the acceptance test or the most recent annual test, whichever is more recent; and

(b) Each of the critical areas identified in acceptance test documentation required by Section 510.5.3, or as modified by the fire code official, and

(c) One grid square per serving antenna.

3. The test area boundaries shall not deviate from the areas established at the time of the acceptance test, or as modified by the fire code official. The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder radio coverage when the required signal strength requirements in 510.4.1.1 and 510.4.1.2 are located in 95 percent of all areas on each floor of the building and 99 percent in Critical Areas, and any non-functional serving antenna are repaired to function within normal ranges. If the documentation of the acceptance test or most recent previous annual test results are not available or acceptable to the fire code official, the radio coverage verification testing described in 510.5.3 shall be conducted.

Point of Information

The alternative in-building coverage test provides an alternative testing protocol for the in-building coverage test in subsection (1) of section 510.6.1. There is no change or alternative to annual testing requirements enumerated in subsections (2) – (7) of Section 510.6.1, which must be performed at the time of each annual test.

510.6.2 Additional frequencies. The building owner shall modify or expand the emergency responder radio coverage system at his or her expense in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or other radio licensing authority, or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC or other radio licensing authority, public safety radio system operator or FCC license holder. Prior approval of a public safety radio coverage system on previous frequencies does not exempt this section.

510.6.3 Nonpublic safety system. Where other nonpublic safety amplification systems installed in buildings reduce the performance or cause interference with the emergency responder communications coverage system, the nonpublic safety amplification system shall be corrected or removed.

510.6.4 Field testing. Agency personnel shall have the right to enter onto the property at any reasonable time to conduct field testing to verify the required level of radio coverage or to disable a system that due to malfunction or poor maintenance has the potential to impact the emergency responder radio system in the region.

AA. A new section 511 is added to read as follows:

511 Automatic External Defibrillators

BB. A new subsection 511.1 is added to read as follows:

511.1 Where required. Automatic External Defibrillators (AED) shall be installed on Port properties in accordance with 511.1.1 through 511.1.3.

511.1.1 Terminals. AEDs shall be located in all public circulation spaces and holdrooms with a maximum travel distance of 150 feet.

511.1.2 Accessory Terminal Spaces. A minimum of (1) AED shall be located in each airline lounge, club, or tenant breakroom designed to serve more than 50 occupants.

511.1.3 Other Buildings on Port property. A minimum of (1) AED shall be located in an obvious location such as an elevator lobby/entrance.

(Ord. 20-1028 § 2; Ord. 19-1002 § 1: Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.070 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 6, Building Services and Systems.

The following local amendments to Chapter 6 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Building Services and Systems,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A.  Subsection 606.6 is amended to read as follows:

606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit more than 220 pounds of Group A1 or 30 pounds of any other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 606.6.1. A written record of the required testing shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of the testing; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual system identifying the date of the testing. Tests of emergency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems.

B. Subsection 607.2 is amended to add the following two (2) subsections to read as follows:

607.2.2 Permit Required. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

607.2.3 Approved drawing. The stamped and approved cook line drawing shall be displayed adjacent to the suppression system pull station prior to the final inspection.

C.  Subsection 607.3.3.3 is amended to read as follows:

607.3.3.3 Records. Records for inspections shall state the individual and company performing the inspection, a description of the inspection and when the inspection took place. Records for cleanings shall state the individual and company performing the cleaning and when the cleaning took place. Such records shall be completed after each inspection or cleaning, maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 days of the inspection or cleaning.

(Ord. 20-1028 § 3; Ord. 19-1002 § 2: Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.080 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 7, Fire and Smoke Prevention Features.

The following local amendments to Chapter 7 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire and Smoke Prevention Features,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Subsection 705.2.3 is amended to read as follows:

705.2.3. Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open devices and automatic door closures, where provided, shall be maintained. During the period that such device is out of service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the closed position.

The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of hold-open devices of existing door installations where there has been documented use of door closure impairment devices.

B. Subsection 705.2.6 is amended to read as follows:

705.2.6 Testing. Horizontal, vertical sliding and rolling fire doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of the inspection or test; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual assembly identifying the date of scheduled confidence test.

(Ord. 20-1028 § 3; Ord. 19-1002 § 3: Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.090 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 9, Fire Protection Systems.

The following local amendments to Chapter 9 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire Protection Systems,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Subsection 901.6.3 is amended to read as follows:

901.6.3 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of each test, inspection, or maintenance of the system; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual system identifying the date of the scheduled confidence test.

B. Subsection 901.11 is added to read as follows:

901.11 Emergency contacts. It shall be the responsibility of the owner of a/any monitored fire protection system to provide and maintain a minimum of three emergency contacts that are capable of responding to the system location with their monitoring company.

C. The following term is added to subsection 902.1:

PROBLEMATIC FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.

D. Subsection 903.2 of the International Fire Code is amended to read as follows:

903.2 Where required. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for when one of the following conditions exist:

1. In all buildings without adequate fire flow as required by this code.

Exception: Miscellaneous Group U Occupancies.

2. All new buildings and structures regulated by the International Building Code 6,000 square feet and greater and requiring 2,000 gallons per minute or more fire flow, or with a gross floor area of 10,000 or more square feet, or where this code provides a more restrictive floor/fire area requirement, and shall be provided in all locations or where described by this code.

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries, and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1 hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or not less than 2 hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International Building Code, or both.

3. Where this code requires the installation of an automatic sprinkler system to protect an occupancy within an otherwise non-sprinklered building, then automatic sprinkler protection will be required throughout the entire building.

4. When the required fire apparatus access roadway grade is 12 percent or greater.

E. A new subsection 903.2.9.3 is added to read as follows:

903.2.9.3 Speculative use warehouses. Where the occupant, tenant, or use of the building or storage commodity has not been determined or it is otherwise a speculative use warehouse or building, the automatic sprinkler system shall be designed to protect not less than Class IV non-encapsulated commodities on wood pallets, with no solid, slatted, or wire mesh shelving, and with aisles that are 8 feet or more in width and up to 20 feet in height.

F. A new subsection 903.3.9 is added to read as follows:

903.3.9. Check valve. All automatic sprinkler system risers shall be equipped with a check valve.

G. A new subsection 903.7 is added to read as follows:

903.7 Riser Room Access. All risers shall be located in a dedicated room with an exterior door, interior lighting and heat.

H. Subsection 907.1.3 is amended to read as follows:

907.1.3 Equipment. Systems and their components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed. All new alarm systems shall be addressable. Each device shall have its own address and shall annunciate individual addresses at a UL Central Station.

I. Subsection 907.6.3 is amended to read as follows:

907.6.3 Initiating device identification. The fire alarm system shall identify the specific initiating device address, location, device type, floor level where applicable and status including indication of normal, alarm, trouble and supervisory status, as appropriate.

Exception: Special initiating devices that do not support individual device identification.

J. Subsection 907.8.5.1 is amended to read as follows:

907.8.5.1. Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 calendar days of each test, inspection, or maintenance of the system; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual system identifying the date of the scheduled confidence test.

K. A new subsection 907.12 is added to read as follows:

907.12. Latched alarms. All signals shall be automatically “latched” at the alarm panel until their operated devices are returned to normal condition, and the alarm panel is manually reset.

L. A new subsection 907.13 is added to read as follows:

907.13 Resetting. All fire alarm panels shall be reset only by an approved person.

907.13.1. Reset Code. The reset code for the fire alarm panel or keypad shall be 3-7-1-2-3-4. The reset code shall not be changed without approval of the fire code official.

M. A new subsection 907.14 is added to read as follows:

907.14 Fire Alarm Control Panel. All fire alarm control panels shall be located in the riser room designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.7 or an approved location.

N. Subsection 909.20.2 is amended to read as follows:

909.20.2 Written record. The records shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replacement. The written record of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises for three years; a copy shall be submitted in a form or manner determined by the fire code official within 30 days of each test or maintenance of the system; and a label or tag shall be affixed to the individual system identifying the date of the scheduled testing.

O. Subsection 912.5 is amended to read as follows:

912.5 Signs. Fire department connections shall be clearly identified in an approved manner.

All fire department connections shall have an approved sign attached below the Siamese clapper. The sign shall specify the type of water-based fire protection system, the structure, and the building areas served.

(Ord. 20-1028 § 3; Ord. 19-1002 § 4: Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.100 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 11, Fire Safety Requirements for Existing Buildings.

The following local amendments to Chapter 11 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire Safety Requirements for Existing Buildings,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. A new subsection 1103.5.6 is added to read as follows:

1103.5.6 Substantial Alterations. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to substantial alterations to existing buildings regardless of use when a substantial alteration occurs in a structure equaling 10,000 or greater square feet. For the purpose of this section, a substantial alteration shall be defined as an alteration that costs 50% or more of the current assessed value of the structure and impacts more than 50% of the gross floor area.

B. A new subsection 1103.7.7 is added to read as follows:

1103.7.7 Fire alarm control unit. If an existing fire alarm control unit is replaced with identical equipment it shall be considered maintenance.

(Ord. 20-1028 § 3; Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.110 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Chapter 80, Reference Standards.

The following local amendments to Chapter 80 of the International Fire Code, entitled “Reference Standards,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Section NFPA of the International Fire Code is amended by modifying the standard reference number dates of publication as follows:

12-18

Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems

12A-18

Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems

13-19

Installation of Sprinkler Systems

13D-19

Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes

13R-19

Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height

14-19

Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems

20-19

Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection

24-19

Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances

72-19

National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code

110-19

Emergency and Standby Power Systems

111-19

Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power Systems

400-19

Hazardous Materials Code

407-17

Aircraft Fuel Servicing

409-16

Aircraft Hangars

410-20

Aircraft Maintenance

415-16

Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways

720-15

Installation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detection and Warning Equipment

750-19

Water Mist Fire Protection Systems

2001-18

Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems

1221-19

Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Emergency Services Communications Systems

B. Chapter 80 – Reference Standards is amended by adding a new heading and publications as follows:

Other

 

2018

Port of Seattle – City of SeaTac Interlocal Agreement

2020

Rules for Airport Construction

(Ord. 20-1028 § 3; Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.120 Amendments to the International Fire Code – Appendix B, Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings.

The following local amendments to Appendix B to the International Fire Code, entitled “Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings,” are hereby adopted and incorporated into the International Fire Code:

A. Subsection B103.1 is amended to read as follows:

B103.1 Increases. The fire chief is authorized to increase the fire flow requirements where exposures could be impacted by fire. An increase shall not be more than twice that required for the building under consideration.

Exception: For one- and two-family residences when either of the following conditions apply.

1. 1-hour fire resistant rated exterior walls tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 with exposure on the exterior side and projections with 1-hour underside protection, fire blocking installed from the wall top plate to the underside of the roof sheathing and no gable vent openings.

2. Walls with a distance greater than 10’ to the nearest exposure or face an unbuildable lot, tract or buffer. The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall.

B103.1.1 One- and two-family dwellings. The fire chief is authorized to increase the fire flow requirements by 500 gallons per minute for homes less than 10 feet apart measured from the face of the foundation.

B. Subsection B105.1 is amended to read as follows:

B105.1 One- and two-family dwellings. Fire-flow requirements for one- and two-family dwellings shall be in accordance with Sections B105.1.1 through B105.1.3.

B105.1.1 Buildings not exceeding 3,600 square feet. The minimum fire-flow and flow duration requirements shall be 1,000 gallons per minute for 1 hour.

Exception: A reduction in required fire-flow of 50 percent, as approved, is allowed when the building is equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

B105.1.2 Buildings greater than 3,600 square feet and less than 4,800 square feet. The minimum fire-flow and flow duration requirements shall be 1,500 gallons per minute for 2 hours.

Exception: A reduction in required fire-flow of 50 percent, as approved, is allowed when the building is equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

B105.1.3 Buildings 4,800 square feet and greater. The minimum fire-flow and flow duration requirements shall not be less than that specified in Table B105.1(2).

Exception: A reduction of fire-flow and flow duration to 1,000 gallons per minute for 1 hour, as approved, is allowed when the building is equipped with the following:

1. An approved automatic sprinkler system.

B105.2 Buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings. The minimum fire-flow and flow duration for buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings shall be as specified in Table B105.1(2).

Exception: A reduction in required fire-flow of 50 percent, as approved, is allowed when the building is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. The resulting fire-flow shall not be less than 1,500 gallons per minute for the prescribed duration as specified in Table B105.1(2).

B105.2.1 Tents and Membrane structures. No fire flow is required for tents and membrane structures.

B105.2.2 Accessory residential Group U buildings. Accessory residential Group U buildings shall comply with the requirements of B105.1.

C. Section B105 is amended by deleting the following:

Table B105.1(1) Required Fire-Flow for One- and Two-family Dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 Buildings and Townhouses

Table B105.2 Required Fire-Flow for Other than One- and Two-family Dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 Buildings and Townhouses

(Ord. 20-1028 § 3; Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 16-1008 § 3 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

13.150.270 Automatic location identifier – Enhanced 911.

A. The definitions set forth in WAC 118-68-020 are hereby amended to read as follows:

1. “Authority having jurisdiction” is defined as the Fire Chief for the City of SeaTac, or designee.

2. “Building unit identifier” means room number or equivalent designation of a specific portion of a structure, or an apartment number in multi-family residences.

3. “Call back telephone number” means a phone number which can be called from the public switched network to be used by the public safety answering point to recontact the location from which the 911 call was placed. The number may or may not be the number of the station used to originate the 911 call.

4. “Determination of noncompliance” means written notification that a system is not in compliance with this section. Information contained therein shall include, but not be limited to, system deficiencies requiring correction to bring the system into compliance and a date by which noted corrections shall be made.

5. “Director of Fire Protection” means the State Fire Marshal or his/her designee.

6. “Emergency location identification number (ELIN)” means a valid North American Numbering Plan format telephone number assigned to the MLTS operator by the appropriate authority that is used to route the call to a PSAP and is used to retrieve the ALI for the PSAP. The ELIN may be the same number as the ANI. The North American Numbering Plan number may in some cases not be a dialable number.

7. “Emergency response location” means a location to which a 911 emergency response team may be dispatched. The location should be specific enough to provide a reasonable opportunity for the emergency response team to quickly locate a caller anywhere within it.

8. “Fire Official” means the City of SeaTac Fire Chief or designee.

9. “MLTS” means a multi-line telephone system comprised of common control units, telephones and control hardware and software. This includes network and premises based systems and includes systems owned or leased by governmental agencies and nonprofit entities, as well as for-profit businesses.

10. “On-site notification” means a system capability whereby a call to 911 is directed through the 911 network to a public safety answering point and simultaneously to a display unit colocated with the fire alarm annunciator panel for the building which will display the caller’s location to a minimum of the building unit identifier.

11. “Public safety answering point (PSAP)” means a facility equipped and staffed to receive 911 calls.

B. WAC 118-68-030 pertaining to “Applicability,” as now in effect or subsequently amended, is hereby adopted.

C. WAC 118-68-040 pertaining to “Compliance,” as now in effect or subsequently amended, is hereby adopted.

D. WAC 118-68-050 pertaining to “Inspection,” as now in effect or subsequently amended, is hereby adopted.

E. Violations of this section shall be remedied in accordance with SMC 1.15.045 through 1.15.075 and by way of correction agreement and/or notice of infraction. (Ord. 18-1006 § 1 (part): Ord. 13-1009 § 2 (part))

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[E-One Quest] Engine 5 + Ladder 4 - Seattle Fire Code 3 response

And they move somehow wrong. Maybe later, when they grow up, they will learn. Ritka will have boobs like her mother, and Irkas ass like Aunt Luda. Although it can be smaller. - Fedya.

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Another ten minutes passed, and the cars were still parked. The taxi driver took out his phone and entered the Internet, not suspecting what torment his passenger was experiencing. It seemed to Polina that ferocious storms were raging inside her, her stomach was torn to pieces, and she sat, huddled.

In the seat, and prayed that the movement would resume as fast as possible. She became frightened and at the same time extremely embarrassed to realize in what a terrible situation she was.



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