75mm projectile

75mm projectile DEFAULT

PROJECTILE, 75MM, SHRAPNEL, MKI

PROJECTILE, 75MM, SHRAPNEL, MKI

Description. This projectile consists of a steel case, near the base of which a shoulder is formed

on the interior surface. A base charge of 3 ounces of black powder is packed in the base of the

projectile beneath a diaphragm of steel which rests on the shoulder. This diaphragm also

supports a flash tube, the upper end of which is flared out into a smaller thin diaphragm.

Between the two diaphragms is held a charge of melted resin which holds 270 lead balls

suspended within it. These balls average 42 to the pound, the 270 totaling 6 pounds, 7 ounces.

Above the lower diaphragm, the interior of the shrapnel case is gradually enlarged in diameter so

that it tapers outward from the base to head. The top of the case is closed by a steel head which

fastens to the case with a fine thread, and which is adapted to the fuze with a coarse thread. The

shrapnel is issued fuzed with the 21-second Combination Fuze M1907M, which is set at safe,

and covered with a metallic moisture proof cap.

Function. The flame from the magazine charge of the fuze flashes down the central tube and

ignites the black powder base charge. Explosion of this charge forces the lower diaphragm

matrix and balls, and flash tube upward, blowing off the fuze and the head as a unit, the rupture

occurring at the fine threads between the head and the case. It is painted red and stenciled in

black with the designations of weapon, and complete round.

Fuze M1907M

Cartridge Case M18

Propelling Charge A normal charge of 1.69 pounds of powder which imparts a muzzle velocity

of about 1,755 feet per second.

Primer M1B1A1

Guns This round is issued for the 75-mm field gun only.

Reference: TM 9-1904, Ammunition Inspection Guide, March 1944

Mulvaney’s Ordnance Technical Information System (MOTIS)

Ordnance Techncial Data Sheet

www.uxoinfo.com


Mulvaney’s Ordnance Technical Information System (MOTIS)

Ordnance Techncial Data Sheet

www.uxoinfo.com

<strong>PROJECTILE</strong>, <strong>75MM</strong>, <strong>SHRAPNEL</strong>, <strong>MKI</strong> Description. This projectile consists of a steel case, near the base of which a shoulder is formed on the interior surface. A base charge of 3 ounces of black powder is packed in the base of the projectile beneath a diaphragm of steel which rests on the shoulder. This diaphragm also supports a flash tube, the upper end of which is flared out into a smaller thin diaphragm. Between the two diaphragms is held a charge of melted resin which holds 270 lead balls suspended within it. These balls average 42 to the pound, the 270 totaling 6 pounds, 7 ounces. Above the lower diaphragm, the interior of the shrapnel case is gradually enlarged in diameter so that it tapers outward from the base to head. The top of the case is closed by a steel head which fastens to the case with a fine thread, and which is adapted to the fuze with a coarse thread. The shrapnel is issued fuzed with the 21-second Combination Fuze M1907M, which is set at safe, and covered with a metallic moisture proof cap. Function. The flame from the magazine charge of the fuze flashes down the central tube and ignites the black powder base charge. Explosion of this charge forces the lower diaphragm matrix and balls, and flash tube upward, blowing off the fuze and the head as a unit, the rupture occurring at the fine threads between the head and the case. It is painted red and stenciled in black with the designations of weapon, and complete round. Fuze M1907M Cartridge Case M18 Propelling Charge A normal charge of 1.69 pounds of powder which imparts a muzzle velocity of about 1,755 feet per second. Primer M1B1A1 Guns This round is issued for the 75-mm field gun only. Reference: TM 9-1904, Ammunition Inspection Guide, March 1944 Mulvaney’s Ordnance Technical Information System (MOTIS) Ordnance Techncial Data Sheet www.uxoinfo.com

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Magazine: PROJECTILE, 75MM, SHRAPNEL, MKI

Sours: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/35132566/projectile-75mm-shrapnel-mki

75mm gun M2–M6

Standard American tank guns of the Second World War

An M3 is lifted out of a Sherman tank at 5th Indian Division's tank workshop near Taungtha, Burma, 29 March 1945
A restored Mitchell aircraft showing a 75 mm M5 gun below the four machine guns

The 75 mm gun was the standard American gun mounted to a mobile platform during World War II. They were primarily mounted on tanks, but were also mounted on the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber aircraft. There were five variants used during the war: M2, M3, M4, M5, and M6.

They were considered the standard American tank guns. The M2 and M3 were used on the M3 medium tank, the M3 was used on the M4 Sherman tank, and the M6 was used on the M24 Chaffee light tank. The M3 was also used on Medium Tank M7.

The M4 variant was fitted on some North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber aircraft.[1]

History[edit]

M2 75 mm gun as mounted in medium tank M3

The 75 mm tank gun has its origins in the famous French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun of World War I fame[citation needed], which was also adopted by the United States and used well into World War II as the 75 mm M1897 field gun. The tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition.[citation needed] The primary round was the 6.76 kg (14.9 lb) M48 high explosive round, which travelled at 625 m/s (2,050 ft/s) and contained 1.5 pounds (680 g) of TNT filling (2845 kilojoules of explosive energy) and a choice of two fuzes, the super quick (SQ) and the delay (PD), which had delays of 0.05 and 0.15 seconds respectively. SQ was the standard setting, with PD used against structures, gun positions or lightly protected vehicles. The field gun origins of the ordnance and ammunition ensured that the M2/3/6 series HE round was highly effective for its caliber. The M48 was available in two versions, standard and supercharge, which had an increased propellent charge for greater muzzle velocity (1,885 ft/s (575 m/s) vs. 1,470 ft/s (450 m/s)) and range (2,300 yards greater).

Other rounds fired by the 75 mm tank guns included the T30 canister shot for use against troops in the open at short range. This, which was essentially a giant shotgun shell full of large numbers of steel balls, was used primarily in the Pacific. There was also the M89 base-ejecting hexachloroethane (HC) smoke round and the M64 white phosphorus (WP or "Willy Pete") round, which proved highly effective in the bocage fighting around Normandy.[citation needed] Finally, there were two different armor-piercing rounds.

The first armor-piercing round was the 6.32 kg (13.9 lb) M72 AP-T, a plain uncapped armor-piercing round whose performance dropped off as range increased due to poor aerodynamics. The M72 was replaced by the 6.63 kg (14.62 lb) M61 armor-piercing ballistic capped high explosive with tracer (APCBC-HE-T) shell. The blunt armor-piercing cap, made of a softer metal, helped to prevent shell shatter at higher velocities and against sloped and face-hardened armor. The aerodynamic ballistic cap acted as a windscreen and improved ballistic performance, maintained velocity, and hence increased penetration at longer ranges. Once the projectile had penetrated the target, a small explosive charge contained in a cavity at the base of the shell would detonate, shattering the shell and increasing damage inside the enemy vehicle. The tracer helped in the aiming of a second shot. In practice, the majority of M61 rounds were shipped without the explosive filler.[citation needed]

The M61A1 used an improved method of attaching the ballistic cap to the shell. The M61 had a muzzle velocity of 617 m/s (2024.28 ft/s) and was credited with the ability to penetrate 81 millimetres (3.2 in) of rolled homogeneous armor plate at 0° from vertical at 500 yards range, which was a quite acceptable performance by the standards of 1942. This ammunition type proved lethal to the Panzer III and IV (up to Ausf. F2), as these tanks were protected by a maximum of 50 mm of face-hardened armor with little slope, which the 75 mm M3 with M61 was capable of penetrating from at least 1,500 m.[2] However, in March 1942, the Germans introduced the Ausf. G version of the Panzer IV, which was armed with the 48-caliber long KwK 40 gun, and had frontal hull armour increased to 80 mm - however, its turret and gun mantlet retained their 50 mm thickness. This was somewhat compensated by the M4 Sherman's improved armor over the earlier M3 Lee making up for the 75mm M3's diminishing battlefield dominance; Wa Pruef 1 estimated that the M4's standard 56º-angled glacis was impenetrable to the KwK 40 when standing at a 30-degree side angle, while the 75 mm M3 could penetrate the Ausf G's hull from 100 m in the same situation.[2]

British tanks in the early years of World War II relied on high-velocity, smaller-calibre anti-tank guns, such as the 40 mm calibre Ordnance QF 2 pounder and 57 mm calibre Ordnance QF 6 pounder, for their primary armament. As tank guns, these had the great disadvantage of either not having a truly effective HE round or not having an HE round at all. After experiencing the effectiveness of the American 75 mm tank guns in the infantry support role, the British opted to adopt the American caliber and ammunition by the expedient of boring-out the 6 pounder tank gun to make the Ordnance QF 75 mm. By 1944, this had become the standard British tank gun, equipping the Cromwell tank and Churchill tank for the campaigns in northwest Europe.

Variants[edit]

An M3 Grant with a 75 mm gun
An M4 Sherman with a 75 mm gun M3
An M24 Chaffee with a 75 mm gun M6

T6

Experimental anti-aircraft gun based on the M1897 field gun.[citation needed] The barrel was shortened from 36 to 31 calibers, and the Nordenfelt screw breech replaced with the sliding block breech.

T7 / M2

Adaptation of the T6 for tank gun role. Used on the early M3 Lee.

  • Barrel length: 31 calibers
  • Muzzle velocity: 588 m/s (1,929 ft/s) with M72 AP shell

T8 / M3

Longer derivative of the M2. Equipped American and British vehicles such as the M4 Sherman, the later models of the M3 Lee and the Churchill III/IV (scavenged from Sherman tanks in the North African theatre). The US Army also experimented with mounting the M3 on various wheeled carriages for use as anti-tank gun, but the program was cancelled due to a lack of requirement.[3]

  • Barrel length: 40 calibers
  • Muzzle velocity: 619 m/s (2,031 ft/s) with M72 AP shell

M4

The 75 mm aircraft gun M4 is a modification of the M3 gun found in medium tanks. It differs from the M3 gun, only in having a seat for the spline machined in the tube. It was mounted on the M6 mount.

T13E1 / M5

A lightweight version of the M3 with a lighter thin-walled barrel and a different recoil mechanism that was used in the Douglas A-26 Invader and the B-25H Mitchell bomber. It uses the same ammunition and has the same ballistics as the M3.

M6

A version derived from the T13E1 for the M24 Chaffee.

  • Barrel length: 39 calibres (2,92 m)
  • Muzzle velocity: 619 m/s (2,031 ft/s) with M72 AP shell

Penetration comparison[edit]

Gun typeAmmunition typeMuzzle velocityPenetration (mm)
100 m 250 m 500 m 750 m 1000 m 1250 m 1500 m 1750 m 2000 m 2500 m 3000 m
75mm L/31 (M2) M61 versus FHA563 m/s (1,850 ft/s) 92 89 84 79 75 71 67 63 59 53 47
75mm L/31 (M2) M61 versus RHA563 m/s (1,850 ft/s) 78 76 72 68 65 61 58 55 52 47 42
75mm L/31 (M2) M72 versus FHA 563 m/s (1,850 ft/s) 82 76 67 59 52 45 40 35 31 24 19
75mm L/31 (M2) M72 versus RHA 563 m/s (1,850 ft/s) 95 90 81 73 66 60 54 49 45 36 30
75mm L/40 (M3/M6) M61 versus FHA 618 m/s (2,030 ft/s) 88 85 81 77 73 69 65 62 59 53 47
75mm L/40 (M3/M6) M61 versus RHA 618 m/s (2,030 ft/s) 102 99 95 90 86 82 79 75 72 65 60
75mm L/40 (M3/M6) M72 versus FHA 618 m/s (2,030 ft/s) 91 85 75 66 58 51 45 40 35 27 21
75mm L/40 (M3/M6) M72 versus RHA 618 m/s (2,030 ft/s) 109 102 92 84 76 68 62 56 51 41 34

See also[edit]

Weapons of comparable role, performance and era[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Baugher, J "North American B-25G Mitchell" March 10, 2000
  2. ^ abJentz, Thomas; Doyle, Hilary (2001). Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf. G, H and J 1942-45. Osprey Publishing. pp. 20–21. ISBN .
  3. ^Zaloga, Delf - US Anti-tank Artillery 1941–45, pp. 8–9
  4. ^Penetration probability is 50%; derived from average of lowest velocity penetrating hit and highest non-penetrating hit and estimating the range at which that velocity is obtained
  5. ^Bird, Lorrin Rexford; Livingston, Robert D. (2001). WWII Ballistics: Armor and Gunnery. Overmatch Press. pp. 62–63.

Sources[edit]

  • Zaloga, Steven J., Brian Delf - US Anti-tank Artillery 1941-45 (2005) Osprey Publishing (New Vanguard 107), ISBN 1-84176-690-9.
  • TM 9-2800 Standard Artillery and Fire Control Material (dated February 1944)

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/75mm_gun_M2%E2%80%93M6
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Ordnance QF 75 mm

Tank gun

The Ordnance QF 75 mm, abbreviated to OQF 75 mm, was a British tank gun of the Second World War. It was obtained by boring out the Ordnance QF 6-pounder ("6 pdr") 57 mm anti-tank gun to 75 mm, to give better performance against infantry targets in a similar fashion to the 75 mm M3 gun fitted to the American Sherman tank. The QF came from "quick-firing", referring to the use of ammunition where the shell has a fixed cartridge. The gun was also sometimes known as ROQF from Royal Ordnance (the manufacturer) Quick-Firing.

Development[edit]

Prior to the introduction of the ROQF 75 mm, British tanks had been equipped with first the QF 2-pounder (40 mm) and then the larger 6-pounder (57 mm). These guns were designed to fire armour-piercing shot, small high-velocity solid rounds that were effective against tanks but did little damage to groups of infantry or soft targets like trucks. Some tanks operating as infantry support were given howitzers firing HE shells, such as early models of the Churchill and CS (Close Support) versions of the Matilda II. The decision to equip British tanks with a gun capable of firing HE shells at soft targets was taken by the War Office.

A HE shell for the 6-pounder was in production by the start of the Tunisia Campaign and available in large numbers in the Italian Campaign. The round lacked sufficient explosive power, but the power of the US 75 mm HE round used in the 75 mm M3 was found to be markedly superior and a number of Churchills used in Italy had guns scavenged from Sherman tanks and fitted to their turrets to give the Churchill NA75 (NA coming from "North Africa" where the conversions were carried out). Approximately 200 were converted in this way.

Vickers was working on a high velocity 75 mm gun to be fitted to British tanks. This took the cartridge case of the 3 inch 20 cwt anti-aircraft gun mated to the US 75 mm AP and HE shell. With a barrel length of 50 calibres, it would have had about twice the muzzle energy of the US 75 mm gun. The design turned out to be too big to fit into the tank that it had been expected to fit.[1]

It was noticed that the US 75 mm cartridge was almost the same diameter as the British 6-pounder case. Instead of having to take the American gun to be fitted en masse into modified British tanks, the Royal Ordnance factory modified the 6-pounder design by boring out the barrel and adapting the breech to fire the US round. The resulting gun could then be fitted without redesigned tank mountings and dramatically simplified supply since both British-made and American-made 75 mm guns could use the same ammunition. It gained British tanks a good HE shell but came with an inferior anti-tank round, proving troublesome against heavily armoured German tanks.[citation needed]

Though the 75 mm had a good HE shell, it was still thought that a more powerful close support weapon was needed and the QF 95 mm howitzer was agreed for a limited number of tanks.[2]

Ammunition[edit]

The QF 75 mm used US ammunition. The shells were "fixed" ammunition, the shell cartridge and projectile being joined together as a complete round.

Bursting charge was 1.49 lb (0.68 kg) TNT or 1.36 lb (0.62 kg) 50/50 Amatol or 1.52 lb (0.69 kg) trimonite.[nb 2] The M48 fuze could be set for impact detonation ("Superquick") or delayed detonation; when in "Superquick" setting the delay would set the shell off if the impact did not set off the fuze. The M54 round had variable delay; the fuze starting to burn at the instant of firing the round.
  • Shot APC M61, with tracer in the base
An armour-piercing capped projectile with a thin ballistic cap ("windshield") for better aerodynamics.
  • Shot AP M72, with tracer in the base
An entirely solid armour-piercing projectile.

Service[edit]

The ROQF 75 mm was chiefly used on the Churchill and Cromwell tanks. The weapon was used in Italy and the Normandy invasion (and possibly in Burma against the Japanese[citation needed]) until the end of the war. While the 75 mm was a conversion from the 6-pounder, some units retained a number of 6-pounder-gunned tanks, due to its superior anti-tank firepower over the 75 mm, especially as the 6-pounder could use the even more effective APCR and APDS rounds.

Externally, the gun was nearly identical to the 6-pounder gun. The 14.9 lb (6.76 kg) HE shell fired at 2,050 ft/s (625 m/s) was found to be the best available and superior to that of the 6-pounder, M7 3 in and 17-pounder, all chiefly anti-tank guns. Against armour, its AP shell was the worst, penetrating only 68 mm of RHA at 500 yards (460 m) and a 30-degree angle of attack, whereas the AP shells of the others penetrated between 57 mm and 76 mm in Normandy during 1944. The AP shell for the 75 mm gun was a 15 lb (6.8 kg) projectile with a couple of ounces (60 g) of HE filling propelled by a 2 lb (900 g) charge to 2,000 feet per second (610 m/s). In British service, the AP shell was used without its explosive filling and as such was referred to as "AP Shot M61".

Gun Caliber Shell weight Muzzle velocity Muzzle energy
kJ
2 pdr40 mm (1.6 in) (AP/T shot) 2.7 lb (1.2 kg) 2,650 ft/s (810 m/s) 295
6 pdr57 mm (2.2 in) (AP shot) 6.3 lb (2.9 kg) 3,000 ft/s (910 m/s) 1,100
75 mm 14.9 lb (6.8 kg) 2,050 ft/s (620 m/s) 1,300
17 pdr76.2 mm (3.00 in) 17 lb (7.7 kg) 2,950 ft/s (900 m/s) 3,100

See also[edit]

Weapons of comparable role, performance and era[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^full name for the round was "Shell, fixed, HE M48, normal charge" followed by the fuze specification
  2. ^80% ammonium nitrate, 10% TNT, 10% aluminium
Citations
Bibliography
  • Chamberlain, Peter; Ellis, Chris (1981). British and American Tanks of World War II. Arco publishing.
  • US Document WO 219/2806, Appendix G to SHAEF/16652/GCT/Arty,
  • "Fire and Movement", Bovington Tank Museum
  • Churchill Tank - Vehicle History and Specifications 1983 HMSO ISBN 0-11-290404-1

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordnance_QF_75_mm
Firing 75mm pack Howitzer

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Projectile 75mm

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FV4005 vs T54 - 183mm HESH Simulation - Overpressure \u0026 Armour Piercing Simulation

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