Highway bridge crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal in Seattle, Washington
For other bridges named after George Washington, see Washington Bridge (disambiguation).
The main span of the bridge in 2015, looking west. The suspended truss is visible at the center of the cantilever arch structures
|Coordinates||47°38′47″N122°20′50″W / 47.6464°N 122.3472°W / 47.6464; -122.3472|
|Carries||SR 99 (Aurora Avenue North)|
|Locale||Seattle, Washington, U.S.|
|Official name||George Washington Memorial Bridge|
|Maintained by||Washington State DOT|
|Design||Mixed, cantilever and truss|
|Total length||2,945 ft (898 m)|
|Width||70 ft (21 m)|
|Longest span||475 ft (145 m)|
|Clearance below||167 ft (51 m)|
|Opened||February 22, 1932|
|Daily traffic||61,998 (2017)|
Aurora Avenue Bridge
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
|Location||Aurora Ave., N. over Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, Washington|
|Coordinates||47°38′47″N122°20′51″W / 47.64639°N 122.34750°W / 47.64639; -122.34750Coordinates: 47°38′47″N122°20′51″W / 47.64639°N 122.34750°W / 47.64639; -122.34750|
|Built by||U.S. Steel Products Corp.|
|Architect||Jacobs & Ober|
|MPS||Historic Bridges/Tunnels in Washington State TR|
|NRHP reference No.||82004230|
|Added to NRHP||July 16, 1982|
The Aurora Bridge (officially called the George Washington Memorial Bridge) is a cantilever and truss bridge in Seattle, Washington, United States. It carries State Route 99 (Aurora Avenue North) over the west end of Seattle's Lake Union and connects Queen Anne and Fremont. The bridge is located just east of the Fremont Cut, which itself is spanned by the Fremont Bridge.
The Aurora Bridge is owned and operated by the Washington State Department of Transportation. It is 2,945 ft (898 m) long, 70 ft (21 m) wide, and 167 ft (51 m) above the water. The bridge was opened to traffic on February 22, 1932, the 200th anniversary of the birth of namesake George Washington. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.
The bridge has been the site of numerous fatal incidents over the years. It is a popular location for suicide jumpers and several reports have used the bridge as a case study in fields ranging from suicide prevention to the effects of pre-hospital care on trauma victims. In 1998, a bus driver was shot and killed while driving over the bridge, causing his bus to crash and resulting in the death of one of the passengers. In 2015, five people were killed and fifty were injured when an amphibious duck tour vehicle crashed into a charter bus on the bridge in an incident that also involved two smaller vehicles.
The bridge is 2,945 ft (898 m) long, 70 ft (21 m) wide, 167 ft (51 m) above the water and is owned and operated by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). There are two V-shaped cantilever sections supporting the bridge deck, each 325 ft (99 m) long and balanced on large concrete pilings at opposite sides of the ship canal which serve as the two main supporting anchors. Some 828 timber piles were driven for the foundation of the south anchor and 684 piles for the north. They range in size from 110 to 120 feet (34 to 37 m) and rest 50 to 55 feet (15 to 17 m) below the surface of the water. Together, the anchors support a load of 8,000 tons. Their construction required a pile driver that was specially designed to work underwater.
A 150 ft (46 m) long Warren truss suspended span connects the two cantilevers in the middle. The bridge's main span is 475 ft (145 m) long. At either end of the bridge there are additional Warren truss spans which connect the cantilevered spans to the highway.
Construction on the bridge piers began in 1929, with construction of the bridge following shortly afterwards in 1931. The bridge's dedication was held on February 22, 1932, George Washington's 200th birthday; it opened to traffic the same day. A time capsule was installed on the bridge by the widow of Judge Thomas Burke and is planned to be opened in 2032.
The bridge was the final link in what was then called the Pacific Highway (later known as U.S. Route 99), which ran from Canada to Mexico. The bridge crosses the Lake Union section of the Lake Washington Ship Canal and, unlike earlier bridges across the canal, the height of the Aurora Bridge eliminated the need for a drawbridge. In 1930 Seattle City Council voted to build connecting portions of the highway through the Woodland Park Zoo, a decision which generated considerable controversy at the time.
The bridge was designed by the Seattle architectural firm Jacobs & Ober, with Ralph Ober as the lead engineer on the project. Ober died in August 1931, of a brain hemorrhage while it was still under construction. Federal funding programs were not available at the time, so the bridge was funded by Seattle, King County, and the state of Washington.
The bridge was nominated for the National Register of Historic Places on January 2, 1980, on account of its "functional and aesthetic" design qualities and its historical status as the first bridge constructed in the region without streetcar tracks. It was accepted to the National Register on July 16, 1982. The bridge formerly had a set of pedestrian refuge islands in the highway's median that were removed in 1944.
In 1990 the Fremont Troll—a large cement sculpture of a troll clutching a real-life Volkswagen Beetle—was installed under the bridge's north end. Up to half of the $40,000 cost for the artwork was donated from Seattle's Neighborhood Matching Fund, a local program to raise money for community projects. The Troll was heavily vandalized in the year following its construction, and large floodlights were installed on the bridge to discourage further damage.
Following the collapse of the Minneapolis I-35W arch-truss bridge on August 1, 2007, WSDOT was directed to perform inspections of all steel cantilever bridges in the state that used gusset plates in their design, including the George Washington Memorial Bridge. The bridge had earlier been certified as structurally sound with no serious deficiencies detected. That year, the Federal Highway AdministrationNational Bridge Inventory found the bridge to be "functionally obsolete". The bridge was given a sufficiency rating of 55.2% and evaluated to be "better than minimum adequacy to tolerate being left in place as is". Its foundations and railings met the acceptable standards and no immediate corrective action was needed to improve it.
The George Washington Memorial Bridge underwent extensive seismic retrofitting in 2011 and 2012 at a cost of $5.7 million. During a regular inspection in October 2019, WSDOT structural engineers determined that an outside stringer beam on the southbound side of the bridge had corroded to the point of creating a visible sag in the roadway. Southbound traffic was reduced to two lanes for an emergency repair that cost $500,000 and took seven days (out of a scheduled ten days).
Accidents and incidents
On November 27, 1998, King County Metro driver Mark McLaughlin, the driver of a southbound route 359 Expressarticulated bus, was shot and killed by a passenger, Silas Cool, while driving across the bridge. Cool then shot himself as the bus veered across two lanes of traffic and plunged off the bridge's eastern side onto the roof of an apartment building below. Herman Liebelt, a passenger on the bus, later died of injuries he sustained in the crash. According to estimates from WSDOT, repairs to the bridge cost over $18,000.Medical claims from the victims against King County amounted to $2.3 million.
A service for McLaughlin was held on December 8, 1998, at KeyArena in Seattle. Numerous state and county officials and over 100 transit drivers attended the service, which included a procession of over eighty Metro buses and vans. Metro retired the number 359 as a route designation and replaced it with route 358 in February 1999, as part of a restructure of service on Aurora Avenue. On February 15, 2014, Route 358 itself was retired, and replaced with the RapidRide E Line.
On September 24, 2015, five people were killed and fifty were injured when an amphibious "duck tour" vehicle crashed into a charter bus on the bridge in a collision that also involved two smaller vehicles. According to a representative from the Chinese consulate, all of the students were foreign-born. The students all attended North Seattle College, and were on their way to Safeco Field for new student orientation. One witness reported that it appeared as though the duck boat veered into the oncoming bus, after crossing the center line. Some blame for the collision was placed on the narrowness of the 57-foot-wide (17 m) bridge deck, which has 9.5-foot-wide (2.9 m) lanes, and the lack of a median barrier to separate the two directions of traffic. There have also been some calls to reduce the number of lanes from six narrow lanes to four wider lanes, although early reports indicated that a mechanical failure of the duck tour vehicles' front axle may have also been a major factor in the crash.
The bridge's height and pedestrian access make it a popular location for suicide jumpers. Since construction, there have been over 230 suicides from the bridge, with nearly 50 deaths occurring in the decade 1995–2005. The first suicide occurred on January 20, 1932, when a shoe salesman leapt from the bridge before it was completed.
Numerous reports have been written about the high incidence of suicide on the bridge, many of them using the bridge as a case study in fields ranging from suicide prevention to the effects of prehospital care on trauma victims. Despite the force of impact, jumpers occasionally survive the fall from the bridge, though not without sustaining serious injuries.
News sources have referred to the George Washington Memorial Bridge as a suicide bridge. In December 2006, six emergency phones and 18 signs were installed on the bridge to encourage people to seek help instead of jumping. Around that time, a group of community activists and political leaders living near the bridge created the Fremont Individuals and Employees Nonprofit to Decrease Suicides (FRIENDS), their primary focus being the installation of a suicide barrier on the bridge.
In 2007, Washington Governor Christine Gregoire allocated $1.4 million in her supplemental budget for the construction of an 8-foot-high (2.4 m) suicide-prevention fence to help reduce the number of suicides on the bridge. Construction of the fence began in spring 2010 and was completed in February 2011, at a total cost of $4.8 million.
- ^"2018 Traffic Report"(PDF). Seattle Department of Transportation. December 2018. p. 11. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- ^"National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
- ^ abcdefgPriscilla Long (March 3, 2003). "Seattle's George Washington Memorial Bridge (Aurora Bridge) is dedicated on February 22, 1932". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^ abcPaul Dorpat; Genevieve McCoy (1998). Building Washington: A History of Washington State Public Works. Tartu Publications. p. 117. ISBN .
- ^ abcdElizabeth Atly; Lisa Soderberg (1982). "National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form"(PDF). National Park Service. p. 4.
- ^"New bridge links coastal route". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Idaho. (Associate Press photo). October 3, 1930. p. 1.
- ^ abKit Oldham (February 17, 2007). "Seattle City Council votes to build Aurora Avenue through Woodland Park on June 30, 1930". HistoryLink. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
- ^Duncan, Don (February 22, 1982). "Aurora Bridge: It was a big day of fanfare 50 years ago today". The Seattle Times. p. C1.
- ^Kirby Lindsay (January 11, 2007). "The draw of the Aurora Bridge: Despite popular belief, the Aurora Bridge isn't prone to heartbreaking situations". Pacific Publishing Company. Retrieved October 20, 2007.[dead link]
- ^Barr, Robert A. (February 14, 1973). "Another chapter of Aurora Avenue history unfolds". The Seattle Times. p. C7.
- ^ abConstantine Angelos (December 10, 1990). "Monstrous New Fun In Fremont". The Seattle Times. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- ^"Neighborhood Improvement Program - A Home-Grown Idea Wins National Applause". The Seattle Times. September 24, 1991. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- ^Cecilia Goodnow (April 2, 1992). "Troll-lific:Gnomes are multiplying". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved August 21, 2008.[dead link]
- ^"Fremont Troll Gets The Light Of His Life". The Seattle Times. March 5, 1991. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- ^"Washington State Bridge Construction Practices and Gusset Plates". Washington State Department of Transportation. 2007. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved December 3, 2007.
- ^"2007 Annual Bridge Update"(PDF). Washington State Department of Transportation. June 30, 2007. Retrieved December 3, 2007.
- ^ abcFederal Highway Administration (2007). "Place Name: Seattle, Washington; NBI Structure Number: 0001447A0000000 ; Facility Carried: SR 99; Feature Intersected: Aurora Avenue, Lake Union". Nationalbridges.com (Alexander Svirsky). Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2008.Note: this is a formatted scrape of the 2007 official website, which can be found here for Washington: "WA07.txt". Federal Highway Administration. 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- ^"WSDOT - Project - SR 99 - Aurora Bridge and Column Seismic Retrofit". Washington State Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on June 3, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- ^Lindblom, Mike (October 28, 2019). "Rusty steel beam closes a lane on busy Aurora Bridge all week — and maybe longer". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
- ^"How Atkinson's team fixed the SR 99 Aurora Bridge in a week". Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
- ^"All lanes of SR 99 Aurora bridge in Seattle open early" (Press release). Washington State Department of Transportation. November 5, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
- ^ ab"Rider shoots driver; 2 dead, dozens hurt". The Seattle Times. November 28, 1998. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^ abDeborah Nelson; Christine Clarridge; J. Martin Mcomber; Tan Vinh; Eric Sorensen; Chris Solomon (November 30, 1998). "Bus Driver Killed By Shot To Chest -- Search Of Gunman's Apartment Turns Up Additional Guns, Knives". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^Chris Solomon (November 29, 1998). "Victim Was Trying 'To Make A Difference' - Herman Liebelt Had Varied Interests, Causes". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^"Part Of Bridge To Be Closed". The Seattle Times. December 19, 1998. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^Roberto Sanchez (April 11, 2000). "Aurora bus wreck tops county list of $10.9 million for claims, suits". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^ abJack Broom; Christine Clarridge (December 8, 1998). "Bus Drivers Honor One Of Their Own -- Memorial For Mark Mclaughlin". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^Schaefer, David (February 5, 1999). "Metro adds routes, buses tomorrow". The Seattle Times. p. B2. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
- ^Lindblom, Mike (February 15, 2014). "Aurora Avenue North bus now RapidRide". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
- ^"NTSB: Duck vehicle didn't have recommended axle repair". USA Today. September 27, 2015.
- ^"4 killed as 'Ride The Ducks' vehicle collides with charter bus". KING-TV. September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- ^"4 killed, 51 injured as 'Duck' vehicle, bus collide on Aurora Bridge". KOMO-TV. September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- ^Kim, Janet (September 25, 2015). "International students killed on Aurora Bridge were from North Seattle College". KCPQ. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
- ^Lindblom, Mike; Baker, Mike (September 24, 2015). "Span's narrow lanes a longtime safety concern". The Seattle Times. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- ^Johnson, Graham (September 24, 2015). "Should Aurora Bridge have fewer lanes and traffic barrier?". KIRO-TV. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- ^Warren, Ted S. (September 26, 2015). "Feds: Axle from duck boat in deadly crash 'sheared off'". Kitsap Sun.
- ^Charles Mudede (April 19, 2000). "Jumpers". The Stranger. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^"Suicide Prevention Week". abcnews.com. September 10, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
- ^"City hopes to dissuade suicidal jumpers". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. October 2, 2006. Archived from the original on January 4, 2020. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^Fortner GS, Oreskovich MR, Copass MK, Carrico CJ (1983). "The Effects of Prehospital Trauma Care on Survival from a 50 Meter Fall". Journal of Trauma. 23 (11): 976–81. doi:10.1097/00005373-198311000-00003. PMID 6632028.
- ^"Woman survives jump from Aurora Bridge". The Seattle Times. September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^"Life After The Fall". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. March 5, 1996. Archived from the original on March 10, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^"'Suicide bridge' hurts workers' mental health". NBC News. January 26, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^ ab"SR 99 - Aurora Bridge Fence - Completed February 2011". Washington State Department of Transportation. February 2011. Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- ^"State budget includes suicide fence on Aurora Bridge". KOMO News. Associated Press. December 18, 2007. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- ^ abDonna Gordon Blankinship (December 19, 2007). "Money for fence to cut Aurora Bridge suicides". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 21, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- ^Marc Ramirez (September 17, 2007). "Neighbors work to end bridge's tragic pull". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- ^"SR 99 Aurora Bridge Fence - Common Questions". Washington State Department of Transportation. February 2011. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
Seattle FRIENDS is dedicated to eliminating suicides from the Aurora Bridge in Seattle, WA:
- Safety fence construction is complete.
- Seattle FRIENDS would like to thank everyone involved with the project. We are both honored and humbled by the support from the community, and hope all stakeholders will benefit from the project.
- Over 230 people have committed suicide from the Aurora Bridge.
- It is the second deadliest "suicide bridge" in the USA, behind the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, CA.
- On average, someone leaps from the bridge once every three months.
- Since 1995 nearly 50 people have died.
- 2006 was one of the deadliest on record, with 9 people dying. This tied the record set in 1972.
- Over half of the victims land on the pavement and busy intersections below.
Source: King County Medical Examiners Office
- The Aurora Bridge is located 5 min. north of downtown Seattle, WA.
- It connects the Fremont and Queen Anne neighborhoods.
- 40,000 people commute over the bridge everyday.
- The bridge was built in 1931 and is a national historic landmark.
Suicide Prevention: 'Suicide Bridge' Reduces Impulse to Jump
Sept. 10, 2012 -- Editors' Note: This is the first of three ABCNews.com stories featured during National Suicide Prevention Week to explore not only what motivates people to kill themselves, but to highlight those who survive suicide attempts, witness them or work to prevent them.
Ryan Thurston remembers the first time he saw a man jump to his death from the Aurora Bridge, landing in the Seattle parking lot just beneath his office window in the fall of 2005.
"It was a balmy Seattle morning, a typical morning, checking email and chatting with co-workers," said Thurston, now 35. "I had a window looking out at the bridge. I glanced down at the parking lot and saw a guy head down, blood coming from his head. He was probably 20 yards away.
"At first I thought he had tripped, then we all looked at the bridge and could see his truck with the door open," he said.
It happened again a month later and continued "on a pretty regular basis," Thurston said.
By 2006, a record nine people in one year had jumped to their deaths from the bridge, including a 15-year-old girl.
But since last year, safety barriers have been in place, thanks in large part to efforts by Thurston, who, after being so traumatized, founded Seattle Friends, a suicide-prevention organization.
"Nothing had been done, there had been no concerted effort," he said a few days before Sunday's start of the 38th annual National Suicide Prevention Week.
But Thurston had another reason to get involved: A close college friend had taken his own life. "You see the impact on family and friends," he said.
Now, state transportation officials, who spent $4.8 million on the project, say guardedly that it is working.
More than 230 people have taken their lives at the Aurora Bridge, making it the second deadliest "suicide bridge" in the United States, behind the Golden Gate Bridge, according to Seattle Friends. Since 1995, 50 people have died, and more than half of the victims landed on the pavement and busy intersections below.
Broadly speaking, a federal study shows, 8.3 million Americans -- 3.7 percent of all adults -- have serious thoughts of suicide each year; 2.3 million make a plan and 1.1 million attempt suicide, resulting in an estimated 37,000 suicide deaths each year.
Some studies show that iconic bridges and other physical structures draw those with suicidal impulses, but if barriers are in place, many deaths can be prevented.
New York University in Lower Manhattan just completed the renovation of a 150-foot-tall space after a several students jumped to their deaths inside a library.
In 2003, after two suicides less than a month apart, the university installed 8-foot, plastic-glass walls in its library's atrium. But another student scaled the wall in 2009 and killed himself. Now, a new system of lace-like aluminum panels has been installed around the balconies and staircases.
Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., has also addressed its suicide problem by recently installing mesh nets on five bridges that cross gorges around campus. The school has had 27 such deaths between 1990 and 2010, 15 of them students.
Some experts argue that those intent on suicide will find a way, regardless of attempts to dissuade jumpers, but one study, reported in the New York Times story, "The Urge to End It All," suggests otherwise.
Two bridges in Washington, D.C., span the 125-foot deep Rock Creek gorge, the Ellington, famous as the "suicide bridge" with about four deaths a year, and the Taft, with fewer than two a year.
But after three people died in a 10-day period in 1985, the city erected barriers at the Ellington Bridge. Critics feared jumpers would just go to the Taft instead. But five years later, a study showed no suicides at the Ellington Bridge and no change at Taft. As a result, the overall suicide deaths went down in the nation's capital by 50 percent.
Study of Golden Gate Bridge Says Deterrents Work
A University of California Berkeley study of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco analyzed potential jumpers who had been restrained, showing that the overwhelming majority did not go on to kill themselves at a different location.
The study was commissioned in 1978 before barriers were installed; 625 people had taken their lives in suicides since 1937 when the iconic bridge had been opened.
"A lot of people do this as a very impulsive act, especially from a public place, in kind of a private moment of crisis," said Thurston, whose complaints to Seattle officials about the suicides at the Aurora Bridge at first fell on deaf ears.
But after founding Seattle Friends, the group engaged the entire community in the project: the Fremont Chamber of Commerce, the Youth Suicide Prevention Program, the Department of Transportation and the City of Seattle.
"The issue wasn't only the suicides, but the effect on the people below," state Department of Transportation spokesman Greg Phipps said. "Hundreds of people are working under the bridge. They were literally encountering horrible sights of bodies in their parking lot on their way to work in the morning."
The Aurora Bridge is a huge, steel-truss structure, 70 feet wide; all but 13 feet of that is roadway. At its high point, the bridge is 155 feet above the water, the height of a 15-story building.
On one side spans an block where a number of offices, including Thurston's former employer, a semiconductor chip manufacturer, sit.
One jumper actually fell on an SUV while the driver was inside. The body struck the passenger side, and the driver was not hurt.
Suicide jumpers have also landed in the waters of Lake Union on the eastern side of the bridge, where one went through the roof of an unoccupied houseboat.
Boaters were also traumatized by jumpers who splashed near a 60- to 80-foot dock that is surrounded by houseboats and sailboats.
Initially, the group raised funds to help victims' families and launched and coordinated services to help them get past their grief. But addressing the bridge, which had an easily accessible pedestrian walkway, soon became equally as important.
"We never said we wanted to raise money for mental health," Thurston said. "We were very focused preventing suicide in that location."
At first the city installed call boxes so would-be jumpers could reach 911 and suicide hotlines, but they had no effect, Thurston said. Once the group convinced the city and state to erect barriers, they held a design competition to retain the beauty of the bridge with its panoramic views.
"We wanted as small a visual footprint as possible," Phipps of the DOT said. "The bridge is popular for photos. It's the signature bridge in the city, a postcard bridge in between two bodies of water."
There were constraints like height restrictions so the bridge crews could do inspections and clean the structure, as well as cost. Engineers also had to meet guidelines imposed on the state because the 1932 bridge was on the National Register of Historic Places.
The result was a series of vertical wires that are enclosed in a frame and paneled the length of the bridge on both sides. The project was complete in early 2011 and so far, only one confirmed suicide has been reported in 18 months, down from four to six in a given year, Phipps said.
"It does appear to be working, but it's also too early to draw any long-term conclusions," he said. "We are encouraged by what has happened so far.
"It's hard to quantify how many attempts have been thwarted," he said. "But it buys time for emergency responders to intervene and drivers to call 911 on the bridges."
Suicide Warning Signs
The fire station is only two blocks away from the bridge and "even 30 seconds to a minute buys enough time for them to get there," Phipps said.
Thurston, who now works in sales for IBM, said he believes the group's work is done, now that the opportunities to jump off the bridge are so much more difficult.
"You would have to be pretty strong to jump up to the top of the railing and pull yourself up and there's a spike on the top," he said. "So you would have to be pretty determined ... the barriers on the bridge give a person a chance to pause and rethink."
For help or to report a suicide, contact the National Suicide Prevention Center Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255).
The following are signs that might indicate the risk of a suicide attempt:
• Talking about wanting to die or to kill themselves;
• Looking for a way to kill themselves, such as searching online or buying a gun;
• Talking about feeling hopeless or having no reason to live;
• Talking about feeling trapped or in unbearable pain;
• Talking about being a burden to others;
• Increasing their use of alcohol or drugs;
• Acting anxious or agitated; behaving recklessly;
• Sleeping too little or too much;
• Withdrawing or isolating themselves.
• Showing rage or talking about seeking revenge.
• Displaying extreme mood swings.
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2020 jumper aurora bridge
I almost vomited. Natasha answered hoarsely, kneeling helplessly. - Nothing, you get used to it.The Bridge
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