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What Are the 7 Different Types of Eczema?

7 types of eczema

If your skin itches and turns red from time to time, you might have eczema. This skin condition is very common in children, but adults can get it too.

Eczema is sometimes called atopic dermatitis, which is the most common form. “Atopic” refers to an allergy. People with eczema often have allergies or asthma along with itchy, red skin.

Eczema comes in a few other forms, too. Each eczema type has its own set of symptoms and triggers.

Read more: 29 things only someone with eczema would understand »

There are also some common symptoms for all types of eczema:

  • dry, scaly skin
  • redness
  • itching, which may be intense

1. Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is the most common form of eczema. It usually starts in childhood, and often gets milder or goes away by adulthood. Atopic dermatitis is part of what doctors call the atopic triad. “Triad” means three. The other two diseases in the triad are asthma and hay fever. Many people with atopic dermatitis have all three conditions.

Learn more: Do you have a rash from hay fever? »

Symptoms

In atopic dermatitis:

  • the rash often forms in the creases of your elbows or knees
  • skin in areas where the rash appears may turn lighter or darker, or get thicker
  • small bumps may appear and leak fluid if you scratch them
  • babies often get the rash on their scalp and cheeks
  • your skin can get infected if you scratch it

Causes

Atopic dermatitis happens when your skin’s natural barrier against the elements is weakened. This means your skin is less able to protect you against irritants and allergens. Atopic dermatitis is likely caused by a combination of factors such as:

  • genes
  • dry skin
  • an immune system problem
  • triggers in the environment

2. Contact dermatitis

If you have red, irritated skin that’s caused by a reaction to substances you touch, you may have contact dermatitis. It comes in two types: Allergic contact dermatitisis an immune system reaction to an irritant like latex or metal.Irritant contact dermatitisstarts when a chemical or other substance irritates your skin.

Symptoms

In contact dermatitis:

  • your skin itches, turns red, burns, and stings
  • itchy bumps called hives may pop up on your skin
  • fluid-filled blisters can form that may ooze and crust over
  • over time, the skin may thicken and feel scaly or leathery

Causes

Contact dermatitis happens when you touch a substance that irritates your skin or causes an allergic reaction. The most common causes are:

  • detergents
  • bleach
  • jewelry
  • latex
  • nickel
  • paint
  • poison ivy and other poisonous plants
  • skin care products, including makeup
  • soaps and perfumes
  • solvents
  • tobacco smoke

3. Dyshidrotic eczema

Dyshidrotic eczema causes small blisters to form on your hands and feet. It’s more common in women than men.

Symptoms

In dyshidrotic eczema:

  • fluid-filled blisters form on your fingers, toes, palms, and soles of your feet
  • these blisters may itch or hurt
  • the skin can scale, crack, and flake

Causes

Dyshidrotic eczema can be caused by:

  • allergies
  • damp hands and feet
  • exposure to substances such as nickel, cobalt, or chromium salt
  • stress

4. Hand eczema

Eczema that only affects your hands is called hand eczema. You may get this type if you work in a job like hairdressing or cleaning, where you regularly use chemicals that irritate the skin.

Symptoms

In hand eczema:

  • your hands get red, itchy, and dry
  • they may form cracks or blisters

Causes

Hand eczemais triggered by exposure to chemicals. People who work in jobs that expose them to irritants are more likely to get this form, such as:

  • cleaning
  • hairdressing
  • healthcare
  • laundry or dry cleaning

5. Neurodermatitis

Neurodermatitis is similar to atopic dermatitis. It causes thick, scaly patches to pop up on your skin.

Symptoms

In neurodermatitis:

  • thick, scaly patches form on your arms, legs, back of your neck, scalp, bottoms of your feet, backs of your hands, or genitals
  • these patches can be very itchy, especially when you’re relaxed or asleep
  • if you scratch the patches, they can bleed and get infected

Causes

Neurodermatitis usually starts in people who have other types of eczema or psoriasis. Doctors don’t know exactly what causes it, although stress can be a trigger.

6. Nummular eczema

This type of eczema causes round, coin-shaped spots to form on your skin. The word “nummular” means coin in Latin. Nummular eczema looks very different from other types of eczema, and it can itch a lot.

Symptoms

In nummular eczema:

  • round, coin-shaped spots form on your skin
  • the spots may itch or become scaly

Causes

Nummular eczemacan be triggered by a reaction to an insect bite, or by an allergic reaction to metals or chemicals. Dry skin can also cause it. You’re more likely to get this form if you have another type of eczema, such as atopic dermatitis.

7. Stasis dermatitis

Stasis dermatitis happens when fluid leaks out of weakened veins into your skin. This fluid causes swelling, redness, itching, and pain.

Symptoms

In stasis dermatitis:

  • the lower part of your legs may swell up, especially during the day when you’ve been walking
  • your legs may ache or feel heavy
  • you’ll likely also have varicose veins, which are thick, ropey damaged veins in your legs
  • the skin over those varicose veins will be dry and itchy
  • you may develop open sores on your lower legs and on the tops of your feet

Causes

Stasis dermatitis happens in people who have blood flow problems in their lower legs. If the valves that normally push blood up through your legs toward your heart malfunction, blood can pool in your legs. Your legs can swell up and varicose veins can form.

Seeing a doctor

See your doctor if the itching and redness you’re experiencing doesn’t go away on its own, or if it interferes with your life. A skin doctor called a dermatologist can diagnose and treat eczema. If you don’t already have a dermatologist, our Healthline FindCare tool can help you connect to physicians in your area.

To help your doctor understand your condition, it may be helpful to keep a diary to identify your eczema triggers. Write down:

  • what you eat and drink
  • what skin products, chemicals, soaps, makeup, and detergents you use
  • what activities you do, such as taking a walk outside in the woods or swimming in a chlorinated pool
  • how long you spend in the bath or shower, and the temperature of the water
  • when you’re under stress

You should begin to notice connections between your activities and your eczema flare-ups. Bring this journal to your doctor to help them pinpoint your triggers.

An allergy specialist can also do a patch test. This test places small amounts of irritating substances on patches that are applied to your skin. The patches stay on your skin for 20 to 30 minutes to see if you have a reaction. This test can help your doctor tell which substances trigger your eczema, so you can avoid them.

Treatment

Eczema often comes and goes. When it appears, you might need to try different medicines and other treatments to get rid of the rash.

  • Antihistaminessuch as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) can control the itch.
  • Corticosteroid cream or ointment can reduce the itch. For a more severe reaction, you can take steroids like prednisone (Rayos) by mouth to control swelling.
  • Calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus (Protopic) and pimecrolimus (Elidel) reduce the immune response that causes red, itchy skin.
  • Antibiotics treat skin infections.
  • Light therapy exposes your skin to ultraviolet light to heal your rash.
  • Cool compressesapplied before you rub on the corticosteroid cream can help the medicine get into your skin more easily.

If an allergic reaction results in a flare-up of your eczema, you’ll want to avoid the substance that triggers it.

7 treatments for winter psoriasis flare-ups »

Outlook

Most eczema comes and goes over time. Atopic dermatitis is usually worst in childhood and improves with age. Other forms of eczema may stay with you throughout your life, although you can take measures to reduce your symptoms.

Tips for reducing outbreaks

Here are a few ways to prevent eczema flare-ups and manage symptoms:

  • Apply cool compresses to your skin, or take a colloidal oatmeal or baking soda bath to relieve the itch.
  • Moisturize your skin daily with a rich, oil-based cream or ointment to form a protective barrier against the elements. Apply the cream right after you get out of the shower or bath to seal in moisture.
  • After you bathe, gently blot your skin with a soft towel. Never rub.
  • Avoid scratching. You could cause an infection.
  • Use fragrance-free detergents, cleansers, makeup, and other skin care products.
  • Wear gloves and protective clothing whenever you handle chemicals.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothes made from soft fibers, like cotton.

You should also avoid any known triggers.

Sours: https://www.healthline.com/health/types-of-eczema

What is dyshidrotic eczema?

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Dyshidrotic eczema is a common form of eczema. The condition causes a person to develop small, itchy blisters on the fingers, toes, palms, and soles of the feet.

This type of eczema is also called vesicular eczema, dyshidrosis, foot-and-hand eczema, and palmoplantar eczema.

In this article, we will look at the symptoms of dyshidrotic eczema, along with its causes and treatment.

Symptoms

Dyshidrotic eczema causes small blisters to appear on a person’s hands or feet. These blisters are often itchy and can be painful.

Symptoms of dyshidrotic eczema include:

  • small blisters on the palms or side of the fingers
  • small blisters on the soles of the feet
  • an itching or burning feeling around the blisters
  • sweating around the blisters

The blisters caused by dyshidrotic eczema tend to go away within 2 to 3 weeks. After this, the skin may become red, cracked, tight, or dry.

Because the blisters can result in open areas of skin, a person with dyshidrotic eczema is at greater risk for skin infections, such as staph infections. Symptoms of a staph infection include:

  • blisters that leak pus
  • pain
  • areas of crusting skin
  • areas of swollen skin

A person should always see their doctor if they think they have an infection in their skin.

Causes

Dyshidrotic eczema may be caused by:

The blisters can also be caused by an allergic reaction to certain metals, including nickel and cobalt. These metals are found in everyday objects, such as jewelry and mobile phones, and also in certain foods.

Risk factors

Women are twice as likely as men to experience dyshidrotic eczema, according to the National Eczema Association. Those aged 20 to 40 are also more likely to have this condition.

Known risk factors for dyshidrotic eczema include:

  • a family history of dyshidrotic eczema
  • a history of certain medical conditions, including atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and hay fever
  • an increase in outdoor temperatures during the spring or summer
  • periods of severe stress
  • jobs or hobbies that involve having wet hands or feet for long periods of time

A person receiving is also at a greater risk of developing dyshidrotic eczema. This therapy involves injecting specific antibodies into the veins to help a person fight a particular virus or bacteria.

Diagnosis

To diagnose dyshidrotic eczema, a doctor will perform a physical examination of the skin. They may also ask questions about a person’s family history of eczema, their occupation, diet, and medications the person is taking.

Allergy testing may be recommended to determine if specific allergens are causing the eczema. This involves pricking the skin using needles that contain common allergens, including certain foods, pet dander, molds, and pollen.

By identifying potential triggers, a doctor may be able to make recommendations to help a person reduce the incidence of their eczema flare-ups.

Treatment

There is currently no single cure for dyshidrotic eczema, but there are many treatments that can help a person manage this condition.

Medical treatments for dyshidrotic eczema include:

  • Applying over-the-counter corticosteroid creams to reduce skin inflammation and irritation. These are also available to purchase online.
  • Taking antihistamines to reduce itching.
  • Applying anti-itch creams containing pramoxine, which are available over the counter or online.
  • Draining blisters. This should be performed by a doctor as it can increase the risk of harmful infections.
  • Taking oral steroids, such as prednisone, to reduce inflammation.
  • Using light treatments. Exposure to ultraviolet light may reduce incidences of dyshidrotic eczema.

Injections of Botox (botulinum toxin) can also be used to reduce excessive sweating, which can worsen dyshidrotic eczema. It is important to note that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have not specifically approved Botox for this use.

Home remedies

Examples of home remedies for dyshidrotic eczema include:

  • Applying cool compresses to dried-out blisters for 15 minutes may reduce itchiness. Following this, apply a lotion or medicated cream.
  • Applying moisturizing creams, especially after washing the hands or taking a bath.

Washing the skin frequently keeps the skin clean, reducing the likelihood of skin infections. Limiting showers to 10 minutes, avoiding very hot water, and applying moisturizer or cream after bathing will help to prevent the skin from drying out.

Diet

If this condition does not respond well to usual treatments, a doctor may recommend reducing or eliminating foods that contain cobalt or nickel. These are trace metals that can cause or worsen dyshidrotic eczema.

Examples of these foods include:

  • bean sprouts
  • canned meats, including tuna
  • cashews
  • chocolate and cocoa powder
  • kidney beans
  • nuts
  • seeds
  • soybeans and soy products

If a person has other specific food allergies, this can also worsen dyshidrotic eczema symptoms.

Complications

Dyshidrotic eczema can, in some cases, cause skin infections. These may require treatment using antibiotics.

When this type of eczema is recurring, a person may notice thickened, tough skin on the areas where the blisters had occurred.

Prevention

While there is no sure way of preventing an eczema outbreak, a good skincare routine can help to protect the skin from future flare-ups.

Ways to prevent dyshidrotic eczema include:

  • Consistently applying moisturizer soon after getting out of the shower or bath. This can prevent moisture loss and excessive dryness.
  • Wearing soft, loose clothing made of natural fibers, such as cotton. Avoid overly scratchy or non-breathable materials, including wool.
  • Refraining from scratching or itching, as this can break the skin and worsen the condition.
  • Reducing exposure to allergens, such as pet dander and pollen. Washing pets with dander-reducing pet shampoos may reduce allergy-related flare-ups. These shampoos are available online.
  • Using a humidifier, especially when the air is cold and dry. This adds moisture to the air, which protects the skin from drying out. Humidifiers are available to buy online.

Outlook

Dyshidrotic eczema symptoms can range from mild to severe. Some people have flare-ups every few years, while others experience severe, recurring bouts that can make it hard to use the hands or to walk.

A person with dyshidrotic eczema should talk to their doctor about the many treatment options available. Using treatment and prevention methods should help to keep this condition under control, and to reduce the risk of skin infection.

Sours: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/320831
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Dyshidrotic Eczema

Dyshidrotic eczema, also known as dyshidrosis or pompholyx, is a skin condition in which blisters develop on the soles of your feet and/or the palms of your hands and fingers.

The blisters can appear as tiny bumps on fingers or can grow together and cover larger areas on the hands and feet. These blisters are usually very itchy and may be filled with fluid. Blisters normally last for about 3 to 4 weeks and may be triggered by a variety of issues like an allergy, genetics, or stress.

What causes dyshidrotic eczema?

The exact cause of dyshidrotic eczema is unknown. Previously, it was thought to be an issue with an individual’s sweat ducks, but that was proven false.

People living with dyshidrotic eczema most likely have hypersensitivity to something like:

Stress can be another trigger for dyshidrotic eczema, as can changes in the weather. Some people experience flares when it’s hot and humid out (and UVA rays are strong), while others experience flares when the temperature drops and gets cold.

Who is at risk for developing dyshidrotic eczema?

There are a variety of factors that may dictate who develops dyshidrotic eczema.

If you are going to develop it, it’ll most likely begin between 20 and 40 years of age. Genetics may also play a role in dyshidrotic eczema. If you have one or more blood relatives with it, there’s a higher chance you could also have it.

A few other factors that may contribute to its development are:

  • you’re already living with another type of eczema
  • you’ve worked, or currently work, as a mechanic or metalworker (because of the contact to certain metals like nickel)
  • you have a history of working with cement (which can contain both cobalt and nickel)
  • you already deal with seasonal allergies
  • you’re living with asthma
  • you have occasional bouts of allergic sinusitis

Dyshidrotic eczema in children

Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is more common in children and infants than in adults. About 10 to 20 percent have some form of eczema. But many will outgrow atopic dermatitis or eczema by adulthood.

Conversely, dyshidrotic eczema can also affect children, but it’s rare.

Symptoms of dyshidrotic eczema

The first symptoms of a dyshidrotic eczema flare may be a burning, itching sensation without any visual clues.

Tiny, itchy blisters might then develop, most likely on your:

  • palms
  • sides of fingers
  • feet

In severe cases, the blisters can expand to the back of hands, limbs, and feet.

These tiny blisters can grow together and form larger areas that are very itchy, red, and raised. If the skin becomes infected, the blisters can become painful and ooze pus.

Typically, dyshidrotic eczema heals on its own in 3 to 4 weeks, but as the blisters heal, they can cause your skin to become very dry and peel. Individuals with a darker skin tone may develop dark spots where the blisters have healed.

How is dyshidrotic eczema diagnosed?

If you’ve been dealing with red, itchy skin for more than a week, it’s a good idea to seek out your doctor or dermatologist, because many skin conditions can cause blisters.

During your visit, your doctor will most likely take a look at your skin and ask you if you’ve noticed a pattern around your blisters — like if you’ve started using different products or have felt particularly stressed — and if your jobs or hobbies include coming into contact with metals.

If your doctor believes your dyshidrotic eczema could be due to an allergy, they may do an allergy test.

If your case is severe or if the symptoms have been long-lasting, you may be prescribed medication.

How is dyshidrotic eczema treated?

The severity of your outbreak and other personal health factors determine which treatments your doctor might suggest. It also may be necessary to try more than one treatment before finding one that works.

Treatments for mild outbreaks

Pimecrolimus cream, tacrolimus ointment, or Eucrisa, are typically used to treat atopic dermatitis. But they have also been shown to be effective for dyshidrotic eczema.

For mild flare-ups, your doctor may recommend:

  • a moisturizer that’s very emollient to help relieve the dryness
  • a prescription corticosteroid that helps heal the blisters and reduces inflammation
  • anti-itch medication in the form of a pill or cream

Treatments for more severe outbreaks

More severe outbreaks might require possible treatments like:

  • antifungal medications, if the eczema seems tied to a fungal infection
  • steroid tablets or creams
  • immunosuppressant creams or ointments
  • UV light therapy
  • dupixent
  • methotrexate
  • cyclosporine
  • Cellcept
  • botulinum toxin injections (botox) if the dyshidrotic eczema seems to be triggered by extreme sweating

Home remedies for dyshidrotic eczema

While home remedies may not be as effective as a doctor-recommended medication, they can help ease symptoms.

You can start with cold compresses, soothing the area every 15 minutes. You can also soak the affected areas for 15 minutes — your doctor may know some good inflammation-lowering medicated soaks.

Find ways to relieve stress. Since dyshidrotic eczema can be triggered by stress, using techniques like meditation can help provide a dose of calm for your mind and body.

If your hands are affected, make sure to remove rings and jewelry whenever you wash your hands so water doesn’t linger on your skin. If you notice that a certain personal care product like a new bar of soap seems to have been the cause of your blisters, stop using it for a few weeks and see if the inflammation and itching die down.

Keep the affected area well moisturized at all times. Try to maintain your fingernails so they’re short enough to not break the skin if/when you scratch. This can help you avoid infection.

Diet changes

Nickel and cobalt are natural elements that can be found in a lot of foods, like:

  • cobalt
    • brazil nuts
    • flaxseeds
    • chickpeas
  • nickel

If your doctor suspects your dyshidrotic eczema flares are caused by a nickel or cobalt allergy, they may recommend a low cobalt/nickel diet.

The most likely way your dermatologist will recommend you follow this specialized diet is through a point system. The higher the amount of nickel or cobalt, the higher the points value for that food or beverage. You’ll be instructed to count your points.

But because there are many healthy foods that include these natural elements, you should not try to do this points-based diet on your own.

Complications of dyshidrotic eczema

The main complication of dyshidrotic eczema is usually the discomfort from itching and the pain from the blisters.

This discomfort can sometimes become so severe during a flare that you’re limited in how much you use your hands, or even walk. There’s also the possibility of getting an infection in these areas from over-scratching.

In addition, your sleep may be disrupted if the itching or pain is severe.

Prevention and control of outbreaks

Because the causes are unknown and the triggers are so personal, there’s no one way to completely prevent or control outbreaks of dyshidrotic eczema.

But you can keep your symptoms from barreling out of control by understanding your specific triggers, strengthening your skin by applying moisturizer daily, keeping your stress in check (when possible), and staying hydrated.

Dyshidrotic eczema in the long term

Typically, flares of dyshidrotic eczema will disappear in a few weeks without complications. If you do your best to avoid scratching the affected skin, it may not leave any noticeable marks or scars.

If you scratch the affected area, you may experience more discomfort, or your outbreak may take longer to heal. You could also develop a bacterial infection as a result of scratching and breaking your blisters.

Although your outbreak of dyshidrotic eczema may heal completely, it can also recur. Working with your dermatologist to come up with a personalized treatment plan — whether it’s short- or long-term — is the best way to keep this skin condition from disturbing your daily life.

Sours: https://www.healthline.com/health/dyshidrotic-eczema
Eczema on Foot Treatment 10 Best Natural Home Remedies Treatment Options - Feet Dermatitis cure

Eczema on Hands and Feet

Eczema is a very nonspecific term. It is often used as being synonymous with dermatitis which simply means inflammation of skin. The different appearance, descriptions and distribution on the hands and feet can be confusing but also give clues about aetiology.

For further information, see the separate Contact and Occupational Dermatitis article.

Description

Acute pompholyx eczema

  • Pompholyx is also called dyshidrotic eczema or vesicular hand eczema.
  • On the hands it is called cheiropompholyx.
  • On the feet it is called pedopompholyx.
  • On the palms or soles it often starts as tiny vesicles deep under the skin, described as like 'sago'. If severe, the vesicles may coalesce to form tense bullae. In time, these burst to release exudate to the surface, with subsequent formation of erosions. Eventually, crusting occurs followed by healing or new lesions breaking out.
  • Severe pompholyx around the nail folds may cause nail dystrophy, resulting in irregular ridges and chronic paronychia.

Subacute eczema on palms and soles

  • This presents as erosions, crusting and some exudate; however, often the vesicles are not seen.

Chronic eczema on palms and soles

  • This results in excessive scaling or keratinisation.
  • Thick keratin or scale forms, which prevents easy movement of the hands and fingers, resulting in painful fissures.

Dorsum of hands or feet

  • Acute or subacute eczema presents as weeping, erosions and crusting.
  • Chronic eczema is dry, scaling and may show chapping with shallow erosions if contact with irritants has occurred.

Aetiology[1]

Hand and foot eczema may be classified as endogenous or exogenous, although the aetiology may be mixed.

Exogenous eczema

Contact irritant dermatitis may result from any weak acid or alkali, including detergents, shampoos and cleaning materials. It may result from foodstuffs, oils and greases. These may affect the dorsum of the hand first; however, prolonged use over months or years leads to involvement of the palms.

Contact allergy is due to a type IV hypersensitivity reaction and may be precipitated by such substances as formaldehyde, rubber compounds and preservative in creams or cutting oils. The eczema should only occur at the site of contact. This will be the soles from rubber in shoes but all over the hands from creams.

Endogenous eczema

Endogenous eczema occurs when internal factors that are usually unknown precipitate the eczema. Pompholyx eczema is usually endogenous but is more common in hot climates. Atopic individuals are susceptible to hand eczema, especially if exposed to irritants.

Management[2]

  • Irrespective of the cause, continued contact with irritant substances will make any hand or foot eczema worse. This may mean taking time off work for engineers, cooks, hairdressers and others. Sometimes a change of employment has to be considered.
  • Treat blisters, exudate or erosions by soaking the affected part in potassium permanganate solution four-hourly until it is dry. Potassium permanganate is available as crystals or in a 1:1,000 solution. The strong solution is purple in colour but a few drops should be put into a basin to produce a light pink colour. If the solution is too strong, brown staining will occur.
  • Apply a potent steroid cream or ointment twice a day to gain control of the condition. The evidence for long-term maintenance therapy is limited and there is a risk of scarring due to inhibition of the repair system of the stratum corneum. Treatment should therefore be limited to six weeks unless necessary. A potent form is required for such tough skin, especially the palms and soles. No steroid cream will suppress the eczema if the causative agent is not removed. Steroid creams may be applied under occlusion. There is some doubt as to whether the usual twice-daily application of steroid creams is superior to just once-daily application.[3] The latter may be more convenient and cheaper.
  • Topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are licensed for the treatment of atopic eczema not controlled by maximal topical corticosteroid treatment or where corticosteroid side-effects have occurred (especially skin atrophy).
  • Topical pimecrolimus is recommended for moderate atopic eczema on the face and neck of children aged 2-16 years. Topical tacrolimus can be used for moderate-to-severe atopic eczema in adults and children aged over 2 years. They are normally prescribed under supervision from a dermatologist.[4, 5]
  • Hyperkeratotic plaques may be treated with 2-5% salicylic acid ointment. Polythene occlusion overnight improves effectiveness but can irritate normal skin.[6]
  • Avoid soap and detergents and wash hands, using a moisturiser such as aqueous cream or emulsifying ointment. Regularly apply a moisturiser for dry skin between steroid applications. Protect hands when doing wet work, with rubber or PVC gloves, or use cotton gloves for dry work.
  • Oral alitretinoin, a retinoid, is licensed for the treatment of chronic refractory hand eczema. It is contra-indicated in uncontrolled hyperlipidaemia, uncontrolled hypothyroidism and hypervitaminosis A.[7, 8]
  • Systemic corticosteroids have been used in short courses for refractory eczema. Likewise ciclosporin is occasionally used off-label for refractory hand eczema if first-line and second-line treatment have failed.
  • Phototherapy with ultraviolet B (UVB) or psoralen with ultraviolet A (PUVA) can be used in refractory cases of hand eczema, although prolonged use should be avoided, as this increases the risk of skin cancer.

Prognosis

If the offending irritant can be avoided then gradual improvement may occur over about six months but some will still have troublesome eczema.

If exposure continues then the outlook is very poor. Cement dermatitis is due to the chromium content and it produces a very nasty dermatitis that often continues even after stopping exposure.

When to refer

Most patients with hand and foot eczema should be patch tested to establish a cause. Diagnosis of irritant and contact dermatitis on clinical grounds alone is unreliable.[9]

An expert opinion may also be requested when an important decision has to be taken, such as change in occupation.

Sours: https://patient.info/doctor/eczema-on-hands-and-feet

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