Amazon fish aquarium

Amazon fish aquarium DEFAULT

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Setting up an Amazonian Aquarium? Use this guide to set up the perfect Amazon Biotope.

The Amazon is home to over 5600 species of tropical fish which is one of the largest numbers of freshwater fish species in the world.

So if you’re looking for lot’s of options setting up an Amazonian Aquarium will surely have you covered.

Let’s begin…


Equipment For Your Amazon Biotope Aquarium

What is an Amazonian Aquarium?

Basically, it means your aquarium will mimic the natural environments found in the Amazon. This is called an Amazon Biotope.

Check out this really great looking Amazon biotope tank by Biotope Aquarium.

Aquarium Maintenance Checklist [Free Guide]

In this post, you’ll learn about the key characteristics found in many of the Amazons 1100 rivers, streams, and lakes.

Let’s start with the water.

Amazon Water Chemistry

Most of the water found in the Amazon will be a darker color and have a pH range somewhere between pH 6.0-6.9. But in the slow-moving streams of the rainforest, it’s possible to see ranges around pH 4.5.

Most fish species in the Amazon will be able to thrive in a temperature range between 74-78 degrees F. But this can fluctuate depending on the time of year.

With that out of the way let’s look at some of the main types of biotope you can find in the Amazon.

Amazon Biotope Options

Because the Amazon River is so large and covers so much of South America there are many different types of biotope you could use in your aquarium.

Below is a list with a brief overview of each biotope.

1. Blackwater Amazon Biotope & Amazon Rainforest Biotope

Amazonian Biotope

The Blackwater streams emerge from the slow-moving water found in the rainforest streams where large amounts of leaf debris accumulate.

As the leaves decay, they slowly start to leach tannins (acids) into the water giving it a dark brown tea color. This is one area in the Amazon where you can see lower pH ranges around 4.5 – 6.5.

The typical substrate in these blackwater streams might be sand, fine clay covered with lots of leaves. Check out this great setup by George Farmer.

With this in mind let’s bring it all together with a few tips to create a Blackwater Amazon Biotope in your aquarium.

The Blackwater Amazon Aquarium Set Up

  1. Dim/Soft Lighting
  2. Use a slow flow rate on your filters to mimic the slow-moving waters of the steams
  3. Use sand or fine gravel substrate and cover it with leaf/stick debris
  4. Use things like oak, alder cones or Indian almond to help keep the water stained
  5. Use types of driftwood that will release tannins

Blackwater Aquarium Plants

Plants used in this biotope should do well in a low light setting. A few plants that could work well are;

The Fish

Here are a few common Species of fish that would do well in a blackwater aquarium;

  • Angelfish
  • Discus fish
  • Tetras
  • Corydoras catfish
  • Dwarf cichlids
  • Hatchetfish

2. Amazon River Biotope

0811 ~ New Amazon River Bank Biotope Aquarium

The amazon river biotope is very similar to that of the blackwater streams and shares many of the same characteristics.

The water will appear muddy due to debris and sediment becoming suspended in the water column and the water will also be soft/acidic in the range of pH 6.0-6.9.

The river would also be full of branches, roots, and driftwood with a minimal amount of plants and the substrate would be dark fine gravel with a small amount of leaf debris.

So how would you bring this together so you can recreate an Amazon river aquarium setup?

The Amazon River Biotope Set Up

  1. Med/Soft Lighting
  2. Use a med/fast flow rate on your filters to mimic river flow
  3. Use a dark fine gravel substrate and cover it a small amount of debris
  4. Use lots of sticks, branches, roots, and driftwood

Amazon River Aquarium Plants

Plants used in this biotope should do well in a medium/low light setting. A few plants that could work well are;

The Fish

Here are a few common species of fish that would do well in a river biotope aquarium;

  • Acaras
  • Oscars
  • Angelfish
  • Piranhas
  • Hatchetfish
  • Tetras
  • Corydoras catfish

3. Amazon Basin Biotope


As the Amazon river flows it occasionally chances directions which will create a crescent-shaped laked call an oxbow lake.

Most of the oxbow lakes will have a temperature range between 76-80F and a pH range of 5.4-6.8.

In these Oxbow lakes, the substrate is very muddy with a lot of debris and almost no water flow making it extremely cloudy.

To get this look in your aquarium try these tips.

The Amazon Basin Biotope Set Up

  1. low/soft Lighting
  2. Use a very low flow rate on your filters to mimic river flow
  3. Use a dark use soil and cover it a lot of organic debris

The Plants

Try to plant densely along the back and sides of your aquarium and leave lots of swimming area open in the middle.

The Fish

Here are a few common Species of fish that would do well in a basin biotope;

  • Hatchetfish
  • Tetras
  • Piranhas
  • Pike cichlids
  • Catfish
  • Freshwater Stingray

4. Amazon Clearwater Biotope


Some streams found in South America will be clearwater and typically appear clear. These streams can either be fast or slow depending on the area.

Two of the most popular Clearwater rivers are the Rio Xingu and the Rio Tocantins

In this tank, we will start to find pH levels around 6.9-7.3 with the temperature at a constant 75-82F.

But unlike the other Amazon Biotopes, you will need a good filter to help keep the water crystal clear.

The Amazon Clearwater Biotope Set Up

  1. Normal Lighting
  2. Use a high flow rate on your filter with good filtration
  3. Use sand and gravel for your substrate
  4. Try to avoid organics that will cloud the water or darken it

The Plants

Try to plant densely along the back and sides of your aquarium and leave lots of swimming area open in the middle.

The Fish

Here are a few common Species of fish that would do well in a clearwater biotope;

  • Corydoras catfish
  • Loricariid catfish
  • Discus fish
  • Pike cichlids

What’ You’ll Need For An Amazon Biotope Aquarium Setup

Although we’ve covered off a few of the different Biotopes you would find in the Amazon and how to recreate them in your aquarium at home there are a few more things we should discuss.

Below we will provide a bit more detail on some of the more common fish species found in the Amazon along with the types of plants, rocks, and driftwood.

This is important because as you start your own research you will learn that not all plant and fish are compatible with the water parameters and conditions found in the Amazon River region.

When it comes to the hardscaping always be sure to decorate using natural-looking elements to give your tank a true authentic Amazon Biotope feel.

But what’s a tank without life, let’s get into all the different fish species found in the Amazon.

Types & Species Of Amazonian Aquarium Fish

Apistogramma cacatuoides

Now as we mentioned above the Amazon has literally over a thousand freshwater fish species to pick from and many might not be available at your local fish store.

That said here is a quick list of some of the most popular Amazon biotope fish.

  • Most Types of Tetra
  • Whiptail Catfish,
  • Bristlenose Pleco
  • Corydoras Catfish
  • Hatchetfish
  • Pencilfish
  • Silver Dollars
  • Dwarf cichlids
  • Angelfish
  • Discus
  • Apistogramma

Amazon Biotope Fish List and Stocking Ideas

For a 55 Gallon Aquarium:

  • 4 x Peppered Cory
  • 1 x Bristlenose Pleco
  • 5 x Angelfish
  • 12 x Rummynose Tetra

For a 30 Gallon Aquarium:

  • 6 x Neon
  • 2 x Bolivian Rams
  • 6 x Serpae Tetras
  • 3 x Otocinclus cats
  • 3 x peppered cory’s
  • 5 x Silver Hatchets

For a 20 Gallon Aquarium:

Types Of Amazonian Aquarium Plants

Amazon sword

When it comes to plants in an Amazonian Aquarium it’s important to know there aren’t a lot of plants found in the water. Instead, you would see more floating plants or plants located in the shallow streams and shores of the river.

This is because of the issue with the water conditions preventing adequate amounts of light getting to the plants.

That said there is still a wide range of plant species available for anyone looking to set up an Amazonian aquarium.

Here are just a few;

List of Plants For Amazon Biotope

  • Echinodorus (Amazon Sword, Dwarf Sword, etc.)
  • Brasilian Water Ivy
  • Water Stargrass
  • Water milfoil, Christmas Tree Plant
  • Pygmy Chain Swordplant
  • Amazon Grass Plant
  • Vallisneria
  • Hair Grass;
  • Cabomba;
  • Myriophyllum.

Aquascaping Amazon Biotope Tanks

When you’re ready to get your hands dirty and start scapin’ you’ll give thought to just how you will recreate the natural look and feel of the Amazon.

To do this we recommend using lots of driftwood and rocks.

Why use Driftwood?

Driftwood is found all over the Amazon and actually serves a lot of purposes. Most Driftwood will release tannins which will lower the pH levels to help Amazon fish species thrive.

The tannins that are released aren’t bad for your water but it will give your tank that Blackwater, tea color. If you don’t like this “Yellow” water look try placing your driftwood in a bucket, fill it with boiling water every two days and wait until the water is more clear.

The driftwood will also help provide shelter and hiding places for smaller fish to help avoid some predatory fish found in the Amazon.

Using Rocks

Your aquarium isn’t just for your fish, it’s also for you and you should want something visually appealing.

Rocks can help with that by adding depth to your tank. Place the larger rocks and some driftwood together until it looks good to you. You fish will also enjoy exploring, hiding and swimming through these areas of interest.

The Righ Substrate

When it comes to the substrate of the Amazon there are really only a few types to pick from. Pick the one that best represents the biotope you are trying to recreate.

Here they are;

  • Sand
  • Clay/Mud/Soil
  • Fine Gravel

Amazon Biotope Lighting Options

Lastly, you’ll want to consider the lighting you will use.

However, as we mentioned above the water conditions in Amazon don’t exactly provide the best lighting conditions.

Most of the streams and rivers are covered by overhanging rainforest, floating plants and covered in leaf debris letting very little light left to provide for plant life.

With that in mind finding an inexpensive LED light that will be suitable for most low light plants will work just great for your Amazon biotope aquarium.

Final Thoughts

Creating any biotope is a fun thing to do but creating an Amazonian Fish Tank will be a fun “Challenge” and you’ll learn how to provide for specific fish species and enjoy watching them live in their natural environment right in your home.

Setting up your first amazonian aquarium pin


How to Create a Natural Amazon River–Themed Aquarium

I have three fish tanks and enjoy giving advice to others about their aquariums.

The Amazon is the second-largest river in the world. It's home to over 2,100 species of fish, with more being discovered each year. It is a very diverse habitat. In this article, I will tell you how to bring a tiny part of this river home and make a proper Amazon-themed tank with Amazonian fish.

Supply List: Tank Mechanics

When setting up a tank, you will need the following must-have items to keep the mechanical part of the aquarium up and running:

  • Glass aquarium
  • Filter
  • Airstone
  • Air pump
  • Undergravel filter (optional)
  • Tank-cleaning materials
  • Water conditioner

You will have to set up the aquarium (I will not go into detail) and have a proper fishless cycle to build up healthy nitrates and bacteria in the aquarium. This pretty much means that you just leave the aquarium up and running with everything in place for one or two weeks. You can speed up this process with driftwoods, plants, and even snails.

When you have the proper aquarium, you can give it an Amazon theme. You can use plants, driftwood, stones, specific gravel, and specific fish.

All About Plants

You can add Amazon river plants to your aquarium to create a natural look.

How to Keep Plants Healthy

  • Substrate: Pick out a brown, natural-colored sand or gravel substrate so the roots of the plants can spread and the plants can be healthy. Specific store-bought substrates are usually provided to help out plants' growth.
  • CO2: Carbon dioxide for plants is usually added into the water by fish respiration, and plants release the CO2 for fish to breathe. CO2 is very important for plants in aquariums to keep them green and healthy. You can artificially add it by using a CO2 system, if you want.
  • Lighting: Lighting for planted aquariums is important. Most Amazon river plants need moderate to bright light. Use a hood for the tank to provide enough light. Hoods also prevent fish from jumping out.
  • Fertilizer: Plant nutrients include nitrogen and phosphorus from fish food and waste and potassium that we add through the addition of ferts. Some trace elements including calcium, magnesium, and iron are also essential. Fertilizer can be added to the substrate (the Azoo Plant Grower is what I use) to keep the plants healthy.

Where to Put the Plants

Put large aquarium plants near the back and side of the tank to make it look more planted and green. Shorter plants should go in the front of the aquarium. Always leave a swimming space in the middle of the aquarium for the fish to swim.

Good Amazon Plants to Consider

  • Broad-leaved Dwarf Amazon Sword
  • Brasilian Water Ivy
  • Water Stargrass
  • Water milfoil, a Christmas tree plant
  • Mayaca vandelli
  • Pygmy Chain Swordplant
  • Red Amazon
  • New Zealand grass plant
  • Red copper-leaved Alternanthera

Keep Driftwood in Your Tank

Make sure you purchase driftwood from a pet store rather than collecting it from the wild. Driftwood that has not been properly cleaned is dangerous for your tank.

Benefits of Driftwood

Driftwood has many uses and benefits in an aquarium, besides giving it a natural, Amazon look. Driftwood can be used to anchor aquarium plants if the specific plant needs that. Driftwood also lowers pH levels considerably, which will help Amazonian fish will thrive. Driftwood also creates a slightly acidic environment and provides hiding space for fish when they need it.


Even though tannins aren't bad for an aquarium, they stain your water yellow. Most people don't want yellow water and seek to get rid of tannins. The first thing you should do to prevent them is boil the driftwood. Secondly, put the driftwood in a bucket, and change out the water once every two days. Thirdly, you can just put it in the aquarium and do water changes more often

Finding Driftwood

Never buy driftwood from a normal, non-pet store because they usually spray their pieces with harmful chemicals. You can find driftwood in the wild but it may be unsafe, as the piece could be rotted or have a harmful growth. The best place to buy driftwood is from local pet stores, as they will always be safe for your water.

Amazon Aquarium Fish You Can Get

Common, easy to care for, and smaller species:

  • Most types of tetra. My favorites: rummy nose, neon, white or black skirt tetra, Buenos Aires tetra, bloodfin tetra, harlequin rosabora.
  • Corydoras
  • Guppies
  • Hatchet fish
  • Pencil fish

Easy to care for, larger species:

  • Angelfish
  • German blue rams, dwarf rams
  • Bristle-nose plecos
  • Silver dollars

Very advanced, specific needs, bigger species:

  • Discus
  • Piranhas
  • Common Pleco
  • Pacu

Remember that every fish has its own needs and requirements, so aways research before you buy.



fishy on November 12, 2019:

albino cory catfish love living in rivers i have some in my tank

Dan on December 30, 2018:

Harlequin rasbora don’t originate from the amazon basin. They are from Asia

squirtgunbotany on September 28, 2016:

here's your sign: fish breathe in oxygen and expel CO2, AKA respiration.

heres your sign on December 07, 2013:

fish breath oxygen not co2

FishAreFriends (author) from Colorado on April 17, 2011:

Thank you so very much! glad you liked it!

Diana Owens from My Little Hole In The Wall, HubPages, USA on April 17, 2011:

Great info!

This is a good start for Newbies just learning the ropes of building their first aquarium.

(I like the Neon Tetras best) (:

Keep up the good work!

peace to you...always,


McGilwriter from Florida on April 16, 2011:

Very interesting. I've always loved large aquariums, but never thought about making one myself.

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How to set up an Amazon themed aquarium

George Farmer sets up another smash hit of an Amazonian biotope tank - this time recreating the life and décor of the Rio Nanay.

My fully planted jungle aquascape featured in PFK a few months back kept me busy pruning and thinning out plants – sometimes daily. So when commissioned to set up the same tank with an Amazon biotope I was almost relieved!

The Amazon measures more than 6000km/3730 miles and has many tributaries, so choosing an individual biotope to replicate isn’t easy. Some believe the waters may be home to more than 5,000 species of fish and I deliberated for weeks over stocking. I would choose the fish, then design the aquarium layout appropriately.  

I usually select fish based on their size, colour and behaviour, including their height to length ratio to suit my tank. In my case the aquarium is much longer than it is tall, at 120 x 45cm / 48 x 18”, so I would usually choose some longer, slender fish.

However, at The Waterzoo in Peterborough I was captivated by some stunning angelfish. I had seen these before, often labeled Peruvian angelfish and Peruvian altums, and wanted them — even though they are not my ideal choice for the tank’s dimensions.

Heiko Bleher confirmed they were a wild Pterophyllum scalare from Peru and advised me about décor and suitable tank mates. The shop manager then said they were in fact P. scalare ‘Rio Nanay’, and he assured me they were indeed caught from that waterway.  This was brilliant news, as there was plenty of information about them on the Internet.

Altum they are not! Despite being labeled as Peruvian altums at some retailers, the fish I bought are definitely P. scalare, although it ‘s perhaps understandable why they are called altum.  With their delicate tall-bodied shape and distinctive notched forehead profile they do look similar.

P. scalare ‘Rio Nanay’ is unique to its namesake river, but there’s some debate about its origin.

In the 1970s a fish exporter’s facility was flooded and all the fish, including thousands of Discus, were released into the Nanay. In the 1980s collectors began catching Discus descended from this accidental introduction. Some believe that this species does not originate from the Rio Nanay and that this distinct strain of scalare may have reached the river by the same release.  

This is backed up by the fact that scalare usually avoid the very acidic blackwater that’s found in the Nanay.  

Some experts believe that what we call scalare might be a number of different but similar species.  This might be possible, as scalare is found from Peru, in eastern South America, all the way to Belem in the west and in many Amazonian tributaries.

Aquascape plans

After speaking to Heiko Bleher, my aquascaping plans were confirmed as needing plenty of wood, pale sand and some leaf litter.

Aquascaping a larger tank using relatively few materials can be a challenge. With biotope aquascaping the trick is to make it look natural and not too contrived, yet at the same time it needs to look appealing.

One or two pieces of wood wouldn’t work in this size of tank, looking too simple and unnatural. I borrowed a lovely large piece of Sumatra wood from PFK editor Jeremy Gay to form the backbone of the layout. Smaller pieces were then added strategically around the large piece, taking care to create balance.

I took several days to come up with the final result, as every time I looked at it there was something I wasn’t particularly happy with.  With no plants to disguise or detract attention it can be tough to get a hardscape-only aquascape to look good.

A few months previously I picked up some fallen copper beech leaves from my local park and soaked them for a few days to ensure they would sink after adding water.

I then deliberately left open sand to the left of the aquarium as it provides a nice balance between open and full spaces.

Heiko confirmed that the waters of the Rio Nanay were stained with tannins, so I added tannins via Indian almond leaf sachets.  These are like giant tea bags full of shredded catappa leaves. I placed three sachets in a jug of boiling water, left to stew for 24 hours, then added the contents into the aquarium water.

The effect looks great, adding a really natural looking blackwater effect, but not enough to spoil the view. I did try to source some genuine wood and leaves from the Amazon, but was unsuccessful.

Cost at a glance

Aquarium and cabinet: £400

Lighting: £100

Filtration/heating: £100

Substrate: £3

Décor: £50

Fish: £140

Total: £793

How to set up a Rio Nanay aquarium

1. I’m using a 240 l/53 gal aquarium measuring 120 x 45 x 45cm/ 48x18x18”.  It’s braceless and rimless, making it ideal for aquascaping from which décor and plants can protrude from the surface. An overtank luminaire is used to provide the lighting and a black background is fitted, helping to hide equipment.

2. A 15kg bag of play sand is then added. This is an inexpensive substrate and readily available from many shops. It doesn’t require pre-rinsing, is inert and the colour and texture is similar to the substrate found in the Rio Nanay. Only a thin layer is going to be necessary as I’m not adding plants.

3. A large piece of Sumatra wood is added. Thought is given to its position along the length of the tank, so some open sand is provided to the left.  The wood is placed to look aesthetically balanced with the branches pointing in a way that leads the eye across the tank.

4. More wood is added, keeping in mind how it looks against the original piece.  Although in nature the wood will be more randomly placed, I like to use some compositional aids to create a visually pleasing aquascape. I feel biotope aquariums don’t have to be ugly!

5. The final pieces of wood are added. These are smaller bits of Sumatra, adding texture to the layout. The individual ones are interlocked and I’ve experimented to achieve the desired effect. Pre-soaked copper beech leaves are added. I enlisted the help of fellow aquascaper James Starr-Marshall during this process.

6. I am using RO here as the water in the Rio Nanay is soft and acidic. The angelfish added later are wild-caught and had been kept in similar conditions in the shop. I use an RO unit, which is relatively inexpensive and ideal for creating softwater set-ups in which you can control mineral content.

7. The aquarium is filled, but some wood has not been waterlogged enough to sink, so I add a large rock. The filter is switched on and heater is set to 28°C/ 82°F. The tank is fishlessly cycled and over the next two weeks I fiddle with the wood until totally happy with the layout.

8. Once ammonia and nitrite are undetectable using test kits I acclimatise and add the seven wild-caught Pterophyllum scalare ‘Rio Nanay’ and 30 Petitella georgiae. They are initially quite skittish but after 24 hours settle and feed on a selection of high-quality dry and frozen foods.

Tank set-up

Aquarium: 120 x 45 x 45cm (48 x 18 x 18”) 240 l/53 gal, braceless, rimless

Lighting: Arcadia overtank luminaire with DIY bracket

Filtration/heating: Fluval FX5 with Hydor 300w external heater

Substrate: 15kg play sand

Décor: Sumatra wood and driftwood, copper beech leaves

Fish: Seven Pterophyllum scalare ‘Rio Nanay’, 30 Petitella georgiae

Fish profiles

Full name: Pterophyllum scalare ‘Rio Nanay’

Common name: Peruvian angelfish, Peruvian altum

Distribution: Rio Nanay

Temperature: Prefers warmer water around 28°C/82°F

Water chemistry: Soft and acidic with low conductivity.

Diet: Quality dry, frozen and live foods. Should readily accept dry foods.

Maximum size: Total height reportedly up to 30cm/12”

Swimming area: Midwater

Full name: Petitella georgeiae

Common name: False rummynose tetra

Distribution: Rio Nanay, Purus, Negro and Madeira

Temperature: 24-28°C/75-82°F

Water chemistry: Soft and acidic with low conductivity.

Diet: Quality dry, frozen and live foods, mouth-sized

Maximum size: 5cm/ 2”

Swimming area: Lower to midwater

What’s the Rio Nanay like? (picture by exedu, Creative Commons)

The Rio Nanay is 3.5km/2.2 miles from the city of Iquitos and one of the tributaries of the Amazon. It‘s a blackwater river that’s surrounded by forest.

In the rainy season it bursts its banks and floods the adjacent forests, causing trees to collapse into the water.

Its average temperature is 28°C/82°F, pH is about 6 and the conductivity 25-50µS in the dry season. In the rainy season, conductivity drops to 15µS. Flow rate depends on the season as well as the depth, which is usually about 5m/16’.

It contains hundreds of species of fish popular in the hobby, most notably probably Symphysodon aequifasciata, the Green Discus, a result of accidental introduction.  There are a few Echinodorus spp. but these are not commonly seen.

Which species of rummynose?

There are three species of what’s commonly known as the Rummynose tetra — Hemmigrammus bleheri, H. rhodostomus and Petitella georgiae — and Heiko said that only the latter are found with my chosen angelfish.

My local shop had a tank full of rummynoses, but labeled H. bleheri.  However, on close inspection, none had their red coloration running past their gill plates.

Top tips

Black backgrounds are ideal for most aquascapes. Much equipment is black, so it becomes camouflaged. Colours contrast well against black and it helps to hide algae that may grow on the glass.

When aquascaping it’s best to place the décor in the tank before adding water. This way you can change the layout many times without messing up the substrate or disturbing the fish.

Why not take out a subscription to Practical Fishkeeping magazine? See our latest subscription offer.

Into the Amazon - Collecting Wild Aquarium Fish in the Amazon: Part 1 - Episode 7

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Aquarium amazon fish

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Aquascape Tutorial: EPIC 4ft Amazon Aquarium / Planted Tank (how to guide - NO co2 - diy lighting)

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